This article discusses the understanding of and relationship between theological research and religious practice (the theory-practice relation). Three models of relationships are described and discussed. A deductive, from-theory-to-practice model is arguably a default position. This model has been challenged by the practice-turn, and by an inductive understanding of the relationship between theological theory and practice. Being a valuable corrective, the inductive model still leaves a number of questions on the role of research unresolved. The article argues for a third model, understanding the relationship between theological research and religious practice along an abductive model. Furthermore, activity theory is used to understand the relationship between theological research and religious practice. It is argued that theological research should neither have a prescriptive, nor a sole descriptive role. Theological research may also engage in normative communication with religious practice, an interaction that may expand theoretical and practical knowledge.
This article presents a so-called school papyrus from the 4th century C.E. The textbook is revealing as to how young children, mostly boys, were taught letters and introduced to the art of reading. The Papyrus demonstrates how the student proceeded from letters to the reading of key names taken from the glorious past, and also of maxims aimed at familiarizing the student with current values of a male Greek citizen. The aim is to convey traditional Greek culture to the students. The Papyrus is of particular interest to early Christian studies since the top of every page is marked by a tau-rho sign, probably the earliest figurative presentation of the crucifixion. It is possible, therefore, that the boy who used this textbook, was a Christian. The text thus opens up many questions of how Christians related to traditional Greek paideia.
The article argues that the latest translation of the New Testament (NT05) by the Norwegian Bible Society has a tendency to amplify several Christological texts in the Gospel of John. It consists of two parts: Part 1 discusses the translation of John 1:1–5, 1:14, 1:15 and 1:18, and offers a new general interpretation of the prologue. Part 2 treats the translation of ekserkjomai in Joh 8:42, 13:3, 16:27–30, and 17:8.
Development aid is an important but disputed means to prevent humanitarian crisis and limit the effects of natural disasters, war and conflict. In this article my starting point is the need to discuss modern development aid in a manner that assumes neither that development aid is inherently good, nor that it is an evil that only makes matters worse. I regard modern development aid as one of the tools states make use of in their policies towards other states, together with for example diplomacy, trade, boycott and war. Accordingly, I argue aid must be assessed in relation to its alternatives. I also argue that the just war tradition can be a fruitful starting point for a nuanced and critical perspective on development aid. The just war tradition offers tools to discuss the legitimacy of international development aid and to make a normative assessment of such efforts. I show how the various just war criteria can be relevant in the field of development aid and thus that the classical just war tradition offers an alternative way of reflecting on aid issues. When the relevant criteria are met, it seems reasonable to talk of «just aid».