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De sosiale fellesskaps formvariasjoner

f. 1931–d. 2002. Magistergrad (statsvitenskap), Universitetet i Oslo 1955. Professor II ved Institutt ved statsvitenskap, Universitetet i Oslo fra 1991 til 2000. Seniorforsker ved INAS 1987–1996 og NOVA 1996–2000.

Stein Rokkans skjema for analyse av norsk politikk har vært mye anvendt. Hans fem dimensjoner er, uttrykt i stikkords form, disse: mål, moral, territorium, konflikter mellom konsumenter og produsenter av landbruksprodukter, og konflikter mellom arbeidskjøpere og arbeidere. Men hvor hentet han de fem dimensjonene fra, og hva slags overliggende systematikk av typer sosiale fellesskap gjorde han bruk av når han plukket ut disse framfor andre?

Han sa lite om dette, noe som begrenset hans egen analyse og gjorde det vanskelig å fange opp endringer, bl.a. veksten av velferdsstaten. Denne artikkelen er et forsøk på å trekke ut noen slike typer fellesskap, og på dette grunnlaget prøve å si noe om hvordan de skiller seg fra hverandre med hensyn til politisk aktivitet, organisasjonsgrad, type av fellesskapsfølelse og andre politisk viktige trekk.

DIMENSIONS OF SOCIAL SOLIDARITY: A RECONSIDERATION OF STEIN ROKKAN’S POLITICAL SOCIOLOGY

As its points of departure, the article takes the five dimensions of political beliefs (the moral dimension, the religious dimension, the territorial dimension, the conflict on the market for agricultural products, and the conflict on the labour market) used by Stein Rokkan in his analysis of Norwegian politics. While the pragmatic utility of that list of variables is considerable, it is not without limitations, particularly in present-day Norwegian society. Nor is the remedy of just appending a few more dimensions or ‘cleavage lines’ very helpful. It is argued that one way out of the impasse is to consider more systematically the main kinds of social solidarity that affect people’s political views and afterwards try to specify the empirical variety within each. As the prime candidates for these types, we suggest four: 1) market solidarity, 2) lifestyle solidarity, 3) territorial solidarity, and 4) ‘collectivities’ or still weaker ties. It is shown that Stein Rokkan’s five dimensions represent only a small selection from the many concrete cases of solidarity grouping that belong to each of the four types. It also seems that the territorial solidarity in his analysis became fused with the lifestyle dimensions rather than appearing as a pure type of its own. Moreover, it is shown that Stein Rokkan was partial to the ‘lifestyle’ groupings and omitted some rather important varieties of market solidarity, such as those linked to the credit market. It is also claimed that many present-day issues are closely linked to the ‘collectivity’ variety of solidarity, such as issues linked to public welfare policies. It is argued that each of the four types produces rather different kinds of politics, and some of these differences are spelled out. The purpose of the exercise is to systematize the efforts of Stein Rokkan to make his contribution on this score more comprehensive with regard to the past and more adaptable with regard to the present and future state of Norwegian politics.

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