Presented in the first part of the article is Weber's early picture of charisma as a phenomenon associated with premodern conditions. Charisma's revolutionary moment is discussed. In later work Weber came to view charisma as a general factor to supersede social inertia. Charismatic impulses were particularly important during the development of Occidental modernity, because «dualistic» beliefs provided charismatic impulses with direction and lasting impact; a culture of opposition and dissent was formed that made for vitality. Finally, Weber's idea to include a populist-charismatic element in Germany's new constitution is discussed and the modification of the charisma-concept that followed.
Norway needs more highly educated workers. It is paradoxical then, that many highly skilled migrants encounter huge challenges getting a relevant job. Based on biographical interviews and observations with the participants of «Global Future», a «talent mobilization programme» for high skilled immigrants, the article identifies relational and contextual mechanisms that leads to a marginalised position in the local labour market. We understand labour market participation for high skilled immigrants as a result of complex negotiations in restricted parts of the local labour market. High skilled migrants need advanced language proficiency to be able to negotiate their skills and competences. Access, quality and organisation of language training seem crucial, as well as majority-oriented networks and knowledge of local labour life, history, politics and public debates concerning social and cultural processes in general. Integration also depends on lifephase, gendered expectations and recognition in the high skilled labour market. The study demonstrates that the part of the labour market that requires higher education has significant characteristics, in which for instance negotiations are part. This needs to be reflected if Norwegian integration policy is to be more succesful.
In most studies on reception accommodations for asylum seekers, the accommodations are associated with conflicts. Furthermore, reception accommodations are often described as areas, in which ethnic majority encounters ethnic minority. However, few studies take into consideration that the Norwegian reception system has changed and that encounters between residents and staff no longer solely are encounters between ethnic majority and ethnic minority. It is indicated that in most reception accommodations, one third or even half of the staff has immigrant or refugee background. This article focuses on this particular group of employees. On the one hand, our findings show that employees with immigrant and refugee background, who very often are ex-residents, may contribute to reducing conflicts and some of the negative processes usually associated with reception of asylum seekers and the reception accommodations. On the other hand, our findings indicate that their empathic and flexible approach may generate conflicts and is questioned both by their Norwegian colleagues and the asylum seekers.