Throughout Haydn’s career one finds scattered quotes from works he had written earlier. In some cases it seems that the work quoted from had been relevant for the audience Haydn was addressing his new composition to, through concerts and publications of scores. This suggests that Haydn occasionally would quote himself as a communicative strategy. This article looks closer at two such quotations: The theme from symphony no. 45 (Farewell) is quoted in symphony no. 85 (La Reine), and the introduction to the overture from Il ritorno di Tobia was adapted to serve as the beginning of the overture of The Seven Last Words of our Saviour on the Cross. These quotations are subsequently compared to earlier and later instances, which suggests that Haydn would use such self-quotations throughout his career, but that the quotations from his last works were able to address an international audience due to the emergence of an international standard repertoire. The article seeks to be a foundation for further works exploring the same phenomenon.
Through a critical examination of various musical and gestural-related aspects of Rossini's celebrated Il Barbiere di Siviglia, I have tried to read its most famous number – Una voce poco fa – in the context of current musicological scholarship. This interpretation deciphers the components of the Code of Rosina's sophisticated characterization, and also reveals some new aspects of the structure, dramaturgy and compositional concept of the piece. In fact, Rosina is found to be the engine of the entire opera, a new type of femininity, which accords with the Goethean principle of the Eternal Feminine. A correlation noted between the evolution of the performance practice of Una voce and the musicological discourse, which occurred in the last fifty years, could promote further research on Rossini in particular and Italian opera in general.
The term «uncanny» derives from Sigmund Freud’s essay Das Unheimliche (The Uncanny) and refers to something frightening that «[...] leads back to what is known of old and long familiar» . The thing is at the same time very familiar and completely alien for observers or subjects, which renders the uncanny object disorienting, ambiguous, and paradoxical. The theory has also been applied to music with titles, composer’s commentaries, or programs that had those uncanny qualities discussed by Susanna Välimäki in Subject Strategies in Music (2005), -Richard Cohn in «Uncanny resemblances: Tonal signification in the Freudian Age» (2004) and Carolyn Abbate in In Search of Opera (2001). This article discusses representations of «the Uncanny» in Edvard Grieg’s compositions with titles referring to trolls, through analysis of their main motifs, rhythmical patterns, and harmonic progressions, in the light of Välimäki’s list of the categories of the Uncanny in music, Cohn’s theory of «hexatonic poles» and Abbates theory of musica automata.
The Norwegian composer David Monrad Johansen (1888–1974) emerged as the standard-bearer for what he himself called «national values» in music in the interwar period. It is very much for this that he is remembered today. But there is more to the story. After all, only a part of Monrad Johansen’s production is clearly influenced by the nationalistic programme he advocated from 1924 onwards, and the insular attitude he may express in some of his articles is clearly contradicted in other parts of his writings. Monrad Johansen received strong impulses from the international music scene, not least from the Parisian scene, where his predecessor and first source of inspiration, Edvard Grieg, was held in high esteem at the close of the 19th century. The French influence on David Monrad Johansen is complex, and may be traced to greatly differing sources of influence. The formative impulses Monrad Johansen received in Paris during his two stays in 1920 and 1927/28 were important, but only constitute parts of this picture. His Debussy studies started well before his first trip to Paris. At this time, Debussy’s music was passed on to him through his studies with Alf Hurum, and also, then, through his studies of theoretical literature of non-French origin. Furthermore, what Monrad Johansen experienced in Paris was not solely French music. In a manner of speaking, Stravinsky’s Russian ballets are French music in the sense that they were created and first performed in Paris, but at the same time this points to a crucial trait of the Parisian musical scene at the time: it was cosmopolitan in character. It thus comes as no surprise that Monrad Johansen received his strongest impressions from Austro-German modernism in Paris. This took place during his stay in Paris in 1927/28, when he experienced Arnold Schönberg, but the positive attitudes to Schönberg were founded ten years earlier, before his first trip to Paris. This illustrates just how complicated the problem of influence is. The French influence on Monrad Johansen is central, but it is found on a great number of levels.
This article explores issues in and approaches to music analysis in the field of popular music studies. First it reviews the work of popular music scholars since the early 1980s in developing a theoretical vocabulary and analytical tools appropriate to popular music. Maintaining that any theoretical approach to the analysis of popular music also necessarily entails a theory of musical meaning, the article then surveys some approaches to the analysis of meaning in popular music, ranging from formalist approaches that assume meaning resides purely in structural relationships within musical texts, through approaches that find musical meaning in ideological critique, the subjectivities that music constructs, and the historical and geographic processes that musical sounds may articulate.
The subject of the article is Norwegian contemporary opera after 1970. Despite an unprecedented high number of new music dramatic works, we lack both a public discussion and a historical presentation of contemporary opera in Norway. This article divides national contemporary operas into three categories, depending on their institutional relation. However, the main aim of the article is to reveal some of the artistic principles and differing concepts of opera as genre that have been dominating the contemporary scene in Norway. The discussion in the present article is thus based on studies of some representative works. In particular is the relation between dramatic text and musical realisation given attention. One of the observations is that in many cases, the operatic works have been based on unsuitable texts – dramaturgically speaking – or on an obsolete generic understanding of opera. Another observation is that international operatic tendencies and new generic conceptions have had little influence on Norwegian contemporary opera.