Abstract: The state and the individual: Governing and being governed In this article it is argued that in order to claim accountability, checks on public administration by judicial process will grow in importance. The function of the judicial process may in this sense be regarded as an alternative democratic institution allowing popular participation in, and control of public affairs. Depending on how the role of the courts in public law adjudication is considered the scope of locus standi may differ. In this article the Swedish, British and Russian systems are discussed.
Keywords: Individual litigious activism; European Convention on Human Rights; standing; Human Rights Act, judicial review.
Abstract: Nordic and European citizenship standards: Converging or diverging norms? The common past of the Nordic countries has left its mark on culture, social order, legislation etc. In addition, the Nordic countries have collaborated closely in many fields, including law. Until recently, for instance, nationality legislation in the five countries has been very similar. However, changes are afoot that will lead to greater divergence, which is remarkable given the moves within Europe for greater convergence in this area. This article examines the factors behind these developments: the Council of Europe cooperation; collaboration between the EU and EEA; and finally the need to stimulate immigrant integration by granting citizenship. It argues that EU member states have a particular interest to promote a convergence of nationality legislation, but that disagreement between Denmark and the other Nordics on the acceptance of dual nationality may have prevented Nordic agreement on current reforms. The five countries should now draw on experiences from these different reforms with a view to identifying "best practice" as a basis for possible future cooperation.
Keywords: nationality law; nationality; citizenship, dual citizenship; immigrants; integration; Nordic cooperation; European Convention on Nationality; European Union citizenship; Nordic citizenship.
Abstract: The right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion in Buddhism. This article discusses how Buddhism envisages the justification of the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. It is argued that the basic norm of moral action in Buddhism, as in most other traditions, is the golden rule, which belongs to the common morality. This can be used to justify the right in question, and it can be motivated at a deeper level from the particular Buddhist conception of sympathy, compassion and loving-kindness. Keywords: Buddhism; freedom of thought; freedom of conscience; freedom of religion.
Abstract: Prosecuting the Crime of Genocide. The article analyses the question what role domestic courts, the various international criminal tribunals, as well as the International Court of Justice may play with regard to the prosecution of the crime of genocide. In particular, it focuses on the question as to whether national courts may exercise universal jurisdiction and whether they have to grant immunity to holders of public officials such as heads of States or governments. Besides - apart from focusing on the jurisprudence of the two ad-hoc tribunals - it also describes the current genocide cases pending before the ICJ and namely the question whether a reservation may be entered with regard to Art. IX, providing for the jurisdiction of the Court.
Keywords: Genocide Convention; International Court of Justice: International law; International Criminal Responsibility; Immunity; Succession to Human Rights Treaties; Reservations.