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Leder
(side 2-3)
av Olle Söderhamn
(side 4)
av Birte Østergaard og Edith Roth Gjevjon
Vitenskapelige artikler
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 5-18)
av Sylvi Flateland, Aslaug Kristiansen og Ulrika Söderhamn
SammendragEngelsk sammendrag

Hensikten med studien var å belyse en gruppe sykepleiestudenters opplevelse av læring og det å være en del av en refleksjonsgruppe hvor også ferdigutdannede sykepleiere deltok. Ti sykepleiestudenter fra et universitet i Norge deltok i studien. Fire refleksjonsgrupper ble avholdt i to kirurgiske sykehusavdelinger. Hver gruppe bestod av to eller tre sykepleiestudenter, to sykepleiere fra de respektive avdelingene, en fagutviklingssykepleier og to lærere. Fokus for refleksjonsgruppene var kjente pasientsituasjoner. Fire fokusgruppe-inter-vju ble foretatt etter at refleksjonsgruppene var avsluttet. Datamaterialet ble analysert kvalitativt. Tre kategorier ble identifisert: «Konteksten som utgangspunkt for læring», «Å lære gjennom å utfylle hverandre» og «Å være en del av et fellesskap». Studentenes læring var basert på kulturen i de to avdelingene. Studentene og sykepleierne utfylte hverandre. Relasjonen mellom gruppemedlemmene var sentral i forhold til læring og følelsen av trygghet og tillit var i den sammenheng avgjørende. Funnene viste at refleksjons-modellen, med utgangspunkt i refleksjon over en kjent pasientsituasjon, var en god metode for å øke sykepleiestudenters læring i praksis.

Nøkkelord:klinisk kompetanse, læringsfellesskap, refleksjon, sykepleie

Nursing Students’ Learning – Learning in Practice Trough Participation in a Reflection Group

The aim of this study was to describe a group of nursing students’ experiences of learning and being part of a reflection group, where also registered nurses participated. Ten nursing students from a university in Norway participated in the study. Four reflection groups were established in two surgical hospital wards. Each group consisted of two or three nursing students, two ward nurses, a nurse expert and two teachers. Focus for the reflection groups were known patient situations. Four focus group interviews were performed after the reflection groups were finished. Data were analyzed qualitatively. Three categories were found: «The context as a base for learning», «Learning by complementing each other» and «Being a part of a community». Learning was based on the culture in the wards. Both the students and the nurses contributed to the learning process. The relationship between the group members was central to the learning and confidence and trust within the reflection group was crucial. The findings showed that the used reflection model, with a known patient situation as a starting point for the reflection, was a good model for enhancing the nursing students’ learning in practice.

Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 19-32)
av Tina Løvenskjold og René Mathiasen
SammendragEngelsk sammendrag

Undervisning af patienter og pårørende er en af de interventioner, der kan iværksættes for at styrke patientens egen rolle i forhold til håndtering og behandling af sygdommen. Formålet med studiet var at undersøge i hvilket omfang indlagte familier modtog undervisning samt hvor tilfredse familierne var med børneafdelingens tilbud på et tertiært hospital i Danmark. Studiet er en kvantitativ brugertilfredshedsundersøgelse udformet som en spørgeskemaundersøgelse blandt afdelingens tidligere indlagte forældre. Undersøgelsen inkluderede i alt 100 familier, hvoraf 81 % responderede. Under indlæggelsen modtog maksimalt 60.5 % af familierne et af afdelingens undervisningstilbud. Afdelingens undervisningstilbud var ikke synlige for familierne. Familierne udtrykte generelt stor tilfredshed med den undervisning de modtog. Under halvdelen af familierne oplevede, at afdelingens undervisningstilbud levede op til deres forventninger. Undersøgelsen afdækker et behov for et mere differentieret undervisningstilbud. Prospektivt skal undervisningens omfang og karakter afstemmes i forhold til indlæggelsens formål samt indlæggelses varighed endvidere skal undervisningen forankres teoretisk.

Nøkkelord:brugertilfredshedsundersøgelse, epilepsi, spørgeskemaundersøgelse, undervisningsprogram for børn

Education in a Pediatric Ward – a Survey about Satisfaction in a Tertiary Hospital

Patient and family education is one intervention that could strengthen the patient’s own role in relation to the management and treatment of his/her disease during hospitalisation. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent hospitalised families received education and how satisfied they were with the education offered by a paediatrics department in a tertiary hospital in Denmark. A quantitative descriptive user satisfaction survey was implemented, and a questionnaire for previously hospitalised families was used in the data collection. One hundred families of whom 81% responded were included. The results showed that during hospitalisation a maximum of 60.5% of the families received one of the department's educational offers. Available educational offers were not visible for the families. The families generally expressed satisfaction with the education, although less than half of the parents felt that it met their expectations. There is a need for additional and more diversified educational offers in the department. Prospectively, it is necessary to tailor the educational offers to the individual needs of the patients and families with regard to the reason for and duration of their hospital admission.

Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 33-56)
av Brynjulf Stige, Kirsti Malterud og Torjus Midtgarden
SammendragEngelsk sammendrag

Evaluering er af grundlæggende betydning for forskningskvalitet og – udvikling. Imidlertid er evaluering etter generelle tjeklister og fælles kriterier vanskelig for et felt som kvalitativ forskning, som jo er kendetegnet af flere forskellige traditioner og kundskabssyn. Vi foreslår en tilgang til evaluering, som tilskynder den refleksive dialog ved hjælp af en evalueringsagenda. Dermed ændres fokus fra regelbaseret evaluering til refleksiv dialog. I modsætning til kriterier, så kan en agenda favne pluralisme og kræver ikke konsensus omkring ontologi, epistemologi og metodologi – kun konsensus i forhold til hvilke temaer, der kræver diskussion. Vi foreslår en evalueringsagenda – EPICURE – med to dimensioner benævnt ved to akronymer. Det første – EPIC – omhandler udfordringen i forhold til at producere fyldestgørende og grundige fremstillinger baseret på engagement (engagement), processing (bearbejdelse), interpretation (fortolkning) og (self)-critique ((selv)-kritik). Det andet – CURE – omhandler udfordringen i at håndtere forudsætninger og konsekvenser i forhold til forskning med fokus på (social) critique (samfundskritik), usefulness (anvendelighed), relevance (relevans) og ethics (etik). De syv elementer som udgør den samlede EPICURE-agendaen beskrives og eksemplificeres. Agendaens kendetegn og implikationer i forhold til forskningsevaluering diskuteres.

Nøkkelord:epistemologi, forskningsevaluering, kommunikation, kvalitative metoder, tjeklister

EPICURE – An Agenda for Evaluation of Qualitative Research

Evaluation is essential for research quality and development, but the diversity of traditions that characterize qualitative research suggests that general checklists or shared criteria for evaluation are problematic. We propose an approach to research evaluation that encourages reflexive dialogue through use of an evaluation agenda. In proposing an evaluation agenda we shift attention from rule-based judgment to reflexive dialogue. Unlike fixed criteria, an agenda may embrace pluralism, and does not request consensus on ontological, epistemological, and methodological issues, only consensus on what themes warrant discussion. We suggest an evaluation agenda – EPICURE – with two dimensions communicated through the use of two acronyms. The first, EPIC, refers to the challenge of producing rich and substantive accounts based on engagement, processing, interpretation, and (self-)critique. The second – CURE – refers to the challenge of dealing with preconditions and consequences of research, with a focus on (social) critique, usefulness, relevance, and ethics. The seven items of the composite agenda EPICURE are presented and exemplified. Features and implications of the agenda approach to research evaluation are then discussed.

Fagartikler
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 57-65)
av Birgitte Bæk, Birthe D. Pedersen, Birthe Poulsen og Hanne Agerskov
SammendragEngelsk sammendrag

Formålet med dette studie var at undersøge sygeplejen ved hæmodialyse set fra patienters og professionelles perspektiv. I denne kvalitative undersøgelse blev dialog anvendt til at få indsigt i patienternes og de sundhedsprofessionelles erfaringer og forventninger. Dialogerne blev transskriberet og analyseret med en fænomenologisk-hermeneutisk metode. Resultaterne viste, at det var vigtigt for patienterne, at sygeplejerskerne udviste respekt og var parat ved opstart og afslutning af dialysebehandlingen. Således kunne patienternes daglige liv og aktivitet genoptages så hurtigt som muligt. Det var værdifuldt, at patienterne kunne opretholde integritet og kontrol, fordi der blev brugt mental energi til at genvinde kontrollen ved konflikter eller i situationer med uopfyldte behov. Patienterne havde positive oplevelser, når de blev involveret i sygeplejen, når de blev informeret om behandlingen, og når det var muligt at opnå høj grad af egenomsorg.

Nøgleord:coping, dialog, egenomsorg, patientoplevelser

Nursing in Hemodialysis Treatment Seen from the Patients’ and the Professionals’ Perspectives

The aim of this study was to shed light on nursing care in hemodialysis treatment seen from the patientsŽ and the professionalsŽ perspectives. Due to daily technical procedures in hemodialysis treatment, the caring aspects of nursing could easily be challenged. In this qualitative study, dialogue was used to gain insight in patientsŽ and professionalsŽ experiences and expectations. Notes and recordings from the dialogues were analyzed with a phenomenological-hermeneutic method. The findings revealed that it was important for the patients that the nurses showed respect and were ready at the start and finish of dialysis treatment. Thus, the patientsŽ daily life and activities could be taken up again as soon as possible. It was valuable that patients could maintain their integrity and control, because mental energy was required to regain control in conflicts or in situations with unfulfilled needs. The patients had positive experiences, when they were involved in the nursing, when they were informed about their own treatment, and when it was possible to obtain a high degree of self care.

Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 66-74)
av Angelika Fex
SammendragEngelsk sammendrag

Antalet personer som genomför egenvård med hjälp av avancerad medicinsk-teknisk utrustning hemma ökar. Utrustning för syrgas, dialys och respiratorbehandling är exempel på sådan teknologi. Denna artikel beskriver ett forskningsprojekt som haft till syfte att utveckla kunskap om egenvård och transition, och om faktorer som påverkar dagligt liv och hälsa bland personer som använder avancerad medicinsk-teknisk utrustning hemma. Resultaten från tre kvalitativa delstudier och en kvantitativ delstudie beskrivs, och diskuteras därefter utifrån kliniska implikationer.

Nyckelord: hälsa, fenomenologi, transition

Self-care Among Persons Using Advanced Medical Technology at Home

The use of advanced medical technology at home has increased. Equipment for long-term oxygen treatment, dialysis and ventilator treatment are examples of such technology. This article describes a research project with the aim to develop knowledge of self-care and transition, and issues that influence daily life and health among persons using advanced medical technology at home. Results from three qualitative studies and one quantitative study are described and further discussed with regard to clinical implications.

Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 75-81)
av Ulrika Söderhamn
Engelsk sammendrag

The Nutritional Form For the Elderly (NUFFE) – A Short Scale Development Report

Background: Screening is recommended as the first step in the process for assessing nutritional status in order to identify nutritional at-risk patients and should be performed with reliable and valid instruments. The nutritional screening instrument Nutritional Form For the Elderly is especially developed for screening of older people.

Objectives: The aim of this paper was to describe the development and psychometrical testing procedures of the nutritional screening instrument Nutritional Form For the Elderly.

Development: The instrument was constructed after studies about important nutritional issues, found in the scientific literature, regarding older people and contains 15 items without anthropometrical measurements. It is developed in the Swedish context and has been translated into several languages.

Psychometrical testing procedures: Homogeneity and stability, as measures of reliability, and face validity, criterion-related, concurrent and construct validity as well as sensitivity and specificity have been assessed.

Conclusion: The Nutritional Form For the Elderly is reflecting factors of importance for the nutritional status of older people, and the testing procedures have shown that the instrument has sufficient psychometric properties in order to be used as a screening instrument in clinical practice and research.

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