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This paper is a theoretical discussion of the on going transformation of the field of practice from a ritualized, bureaucratic to a flexible, variable field. It is important to discuss how the changes in the field of practice confront education. With references to Max Weber it is argued that bureaucracy is an organic part of modernity, both on a structural and an ideological level. A bureaucratic understanding of the practical field, as rule based and predictable, can nevertheless still be traced in education. Hereby the following assumptions are nurtured; that school-knowledge can be directly converted into practice; that actions in the field of practice can and must be evidence-based; and that practical knowledge is equivalent with applied theoretical knowledge. However, the contemporary fluid and flexible field of practice can no longer be captured by a bureaucratic standard. This is a challenge to education, both on a political-practical level and on an ideological level. In conclusion, the paper will confront the new challenges of education by means of an Aristotelian understanding of the field of practice. His perspective offers both a fruitful contribution to the bureaucratic as well as to the postmodern understanding.
Demokrati- och jämlikhetsargument intar en alltmer marginell roll när reformer på skolområdet diskuteras. Det är dock okänt om detta även gäller vänsterblocket, och inte bara de borgerliga partierna. Här studeras debatten kring den centrala gymnasiereform som den borgerliga regeringen genomförde 2009 (”Högre krav och kvalitet i den nya gymnasieskolan”). Undersökningen visar att Socialdemokraterna och Miljöpartiet, i likhet med högerpartierna, gav liten tyngd åt demokrati- och jämlikhetsresonemang. Undantaget var Vänsterpartiet, som riktade kraftfull kritik mot reformen utifrån ett jämlikhetsperspektiv. Demokratiuppdraget sägs försummas när framtidens utbildning utformas, en farhåga som stöds av resultaten i den här studien.
Nøkkelord: education reforms, Sweden, upper-secondary education, democratic arguments, equality arguments
All vocational education and training schools in Denmark are required to launch retention initiatives and report yearly on their efforts to increase retention and the completion rate of their students. This article argues that the structural conditions and incentive structure around VET produce teaching practices in VET that create unmotivated, weak students and unintentional push-out effects. Furthermore, it is suggested that the marketization of education has had a profound effect on the practice in VET in such a way that good education has come to be more associated with retaining all students in the VET schools and less about developing good teaching practices.
This article discusses, using survey results, interaction between teaching and research and development (R &D) at Finnish universities of applied sciences (UASs). The expectations to integrate these two are very topical. However, the UASs are better known as education institutions among their external stakeholders. UASs’ strategic dilemma is the further development of the R & D mission. This raises a number of fundamental questions for leaders and managers. While the current Finnish higher education policy emphasises ‘integration’ the UASs face several difficulties when trying to link teaching and R & D. The struggle from the point of view of academic leaders culminates to the attempts to realign the culture of the academic work including high teaching loads with R & D serving directly business world. This article indicates that leadership preferences and dedication of mid-level leaders in UASs are very important.
Nøkkelord: academic leaders, teaching, research and development (R & D), universities of applied sciences
In this article, a feedback model is proposed which identifies four aspects of feedback. The concept 'patterns of feedback' is introduced, to designate combinations of these aspects. The model uses single feedback utterances as unit of coding, but can be used with various units of analysis. When applying the model to analyse the literature on feedback practices, patterns belonging to a traditionalist perspective, teachers correcting students’ work, was easiest to identify. If these studies capture a trend in how feedback is practiced in HE today, it seems that dialogic practices, which place self-regulation at the core of the feedback process, should be advocated and strengthened.