This article introduces the concept of general pedagogical science [allmenn pedagogikkvitenskap]. Like educational science [utdanningsvitenskap] the idea of general pedagogical science does include collaboration with other disciplines, but it does so in a different way. Where educational science gives other disciplines, such as, for example, psychology, sociology, philosophy and history, an equally important role as ‘pedagogikk’ regarding educational research, general pedagogical science does relate to the concept of pedagogical judgment [pedagogisk dømmekraft], a concept which clarifies, strengthens and legitimizes the pedagogical dimension within educational research. The main reason is that the pedagogical judgment happens in the tension between theoretical and empirical educational research on the one hand and pedagogical action [pedagogisk handling] on the other hand, so that the educational research can be validated in terms of making the research pedagogically relevant. The educational science, on the other hand, does not undergo any systematic validation of the educational research, hence the risk of bringing the focus away from pedagogical problem areas is high.
The aim of the article is to highlight different expectations about special educators’ and special teachers’ roles and functions in Sweden, to understand why these differences occur, and to problematize these expectations. Data has been collected through knowledge creating dialogues with special educators, special teachers educated after 2008, and school leaders. Habermas’s theory of communicative action, and Barad’s theory of agential realism have been used. The results show that special educators and special teachers need to be involved in the ongoing work in preschools and schools, but that different organizational solutions may be needed for the two professional groups. The author suggests that Swedish preschools and schools should take advantage of the fact that there are two different special education professions and distinguish their roles and functions clearly. Additionally, if special education would be based on communicative theoretical perspectives, conditions and opportunities for children’s learning – in a more inclusive way – would be created.
Young people without education and/or work has become a huge challenge in developed economies. This group is called «NEET» (not in education, employment or training) and in some cases make up 10 percent of the younger population and many countries have introduced special programs to tackle the phenomenon (ILO, 2012: 5). In Norway the program is called Ny Giv. Schools/teachers, public health workers and municipality administrators work towards one goal: helping as many as possible through the education system and reach formal competences. To secure flexibility in our systems and avoid conceptual stop points I turn to poststructural and posthuman approaches to explore new and other possibilities.
The main aim of this study is to describe what kinds of experiences comprehensive school teachers in Finland have of internal or external evaluation focused on their school as a community. The data were gathered by means of a questionnaire designed for teachers of comprehensive schools. A sample of 126 teachers completed and returned the questionnaire. Among the most satisfactory experiences of internal or external school-focused evaluations were increased interaction and discussions among teaching staff. Teachers complained most about bad implementation of evaluations (time schedules, measurement procedures, irrelevant questionnaires) and increased negative feedback.