The research task of the project was to refine our knowledge: a) whether pupil participation according to the theory can predict learning process and outcomes, and b) what are the factors which interactively support or make it difficult to participate and therefore to learn in a classroom situation? The purpose was to trace the sequence of learning processes in the three selected eleven-year-old pupils that clearly represented a variety of levels in cognitive classroom learning. The data collecting process to be designed accordingly contains the following steps: prior knowledge (before teaching), the immediate learning product after a lesson, after two days, and after six to seven weeks. The empirical data show that pupils are engaged in classroom learning and therefore they actually do learn when they try to search actively for prior knowledge in their long-term memory, have a strong volition to study in individual situations, and reflect critical thinking in regard to their own study process.

Keywords: learning processes, prior learning, motivation, class activities, elementary school students