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Leder
Editorial
Åpen tilgang
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 8-19)
av Sven Bremberg
SammendragEngelsk sammendrag

Bakgrund: Det finns motstridiga uppfattningar om hälsan i städer kontra glesbygd. Historiskt sett var, fram till mitten av 1850-talet, städer i Europa ohälsosamma platser. Idag verkar dock hälsan vara bättre i städer än på landet men resultaten i olika studier är motstridiga. Vidare har de nordiska länderna omfattande socialpolitiska insatser som syftar till att utjämna skillnader mellan människors livschanser, inkluderade skillnader mellan stad och land.

Syfte: Att undersöka effekten av befolkningstäthet (BT) på hälsan i nordiska kommuner.

Metoder: Hälsan bedömdes som dödlighet, beräknade som livslängd vid födseln (LE), som potentiella antal förlorade levnadsår (PYLL) i åldrarna 0–80 år och direkt som dödlighet i olika åldrar. I analyserna beräknades en linjär korrelation mellan LE/PYLL/dödlighet och log10 för BT (invånare per kvadratkilometer). Effekten av BT har bedömts som skillnaden i LE/PYLL/dödlighet för en 10-faldig ökning av BT.

Resultat och slutsatser: I Finland, Norge och Sverige var dödligheten genomgående högre i kommuner med låg BT. Skillnad har ökat med tiden. De nationella insatser som genomförts och som syftar till att utjämna skillnader mellan tätort och glesbygd har uppenbarligen varit otillräckliga. Resultaten i Danmark var oklara vilket troligen berodde på mindre variation av kommunal BT.

Background: There are conflicting perceptions of health in urban vs. rural areas. Historically, up until the mid 1850ies, towns and cities in Europe were unhealthy places. Yet, contemporary studies often indicate better health in urban areas. The findings, however, are not consistent. Moreover, in the Nordic countries, there are ambitious welfare policies at place that might reduce any rural or urban disadvantage.

Aim: To investigate the effect of population density (BT) on health in Nordic municipalities.

Methods: Health outcomes were assessed as mortality rates, calculated as Life Expectancy at birth (LE), as Potential Years of Life Lost before age 80 (PYLL) and as mortality rates in different age groups. In the analyses, mortality rates were linearly correlated with the log10 for BT. The effect of BT was assessed as the difference in mortality rates by a 10 times increase of BT.

Results and conclusions: In Finland, Norway and Sweden, mortality rates were consistently higher in less densely populated municipalities. This disparity has increased over time. The national efforts to offset this disparity have obviously not been sufficient. The findings in Denmark were unclear, which probably was due to less variation of municipal BT.

Åpen tilgang
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 20-39)
av Julien Grunfelder, Johanna Carolina Jokinen, Gustaf Norlén & Kjell Nilsson
Sammendrag

By synthesising individual components of a complex system, composite indicators are ideally used to compare regional performance and to initiate public debates. The Regional Potential Index (RPI) provides an index value for each administrative region of the Nordic Region to enable cross-regional comparison of development potential and to illustrate the regional balance. Data from nine selected socio-economic indicators concerning demography, the labour force and the economy was used to construct the RPI. This article hence aims to show how regional development potential looks in different parts of the Nordic Region and how the regional balance has developed over recent years. The results demonstrate a continued strong position of urban regions, while those administrative regions that have improved their ranking are mainly found in the rural parts of the Nordic Region. The large majority of the analysed regions increased their score between 2017 and 2019, which indicates diminishing differences between these administrative regions in terms of development potential and a positive development regarding the cohesion policy. Yet, it is important to note that the geography of an administrative region and the lack of reliable data on cross-border flows, qualitative dimensions, and carbon dioxide emissions influence the results in the ranking.

Åpen tilgang
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 40-57)
av Timothy Heleniak & Nora Sánchez Gassen
Sammendrag

The population of the Nordic region has grown substantially during recent decades, though most of this growth has been in urban regions. While the Nordic countries are projected to see continued population growth in the future, almost all of the increase will be concentrated in urban centres, with population decline or stagnation in many rural municipalities. This will make it difficult for these regions to remain economically competitive and for national governments to provide a uniform level of services across entire countries. This article provides policymakers at the national, regional, and municipal levels with projections of the size, composition, and geographic distribution of rural populations in the Nordic countries in 2040. In total, remote rural regions will not become depopulated and are projected to grow moderately from 5.3 to 5.5 million persons to 2040, though many will experience significant declines in their total and working-age populations and will have much older age structures. For many rural municipalities in the Nordic region, their population peak was at some point in the distant past, and they should therefore develop policies based on smaller populations.

Åpen tilgang
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 58-69)
av Jon P. Knudsen
Sammendrag

Geography has played an important part in creating the Nordic welfare states. This article discusses how the urban-rural dimension has been dealt with in the context of developing economic welfare. Four different policy interventions are presented: exogeneous shocks, buy out, palliative treatment and endogenous growth through innovation. Of these, the latter prevails in contemporary policy discussions. The application of policy measures varies substantially between the Nordic countries. We have different Nordic models rather than a single model. While in the aftermath of World War II economic development and welfare arguments combined to justify geographical centralisation, the present climate concerns seem to align with economic interests to form a new wave of centralisation, though on different geographical scales. It remains to be seen whether this tendency is politically sustainable or not. If it is, we face a new geography of welfare along the rural-urban axis.

www.idunn.no/nordisk_valfardsforskning

Nordisk välfärdsforskning | Nordic Welfare Research ble etablert i 2016 og publiserer artikler innen et bredt spekter av velferdspolitiske temaer om de nordiske velferdssamfunn, som levekår og livssituasjon i befolkningen, arbeidsliv og arbeidsinkludering, sosiale tjenester, omsorg, folkehelse og funksjonshemming.

 

Tidsskriftet utgis inntil fire ganger i året og inneholder fagfellevurderte artikler på dansk, engelsk, norsk og svensk. Språkene er likestilt.

 

Tidsskriftet har som mål å være et flerfaglig, vitenskapelig tidsskrift. Det publiserer forskningsbaserte artikler som bygger på empirisk og/eller teoretiske analyser av høy faglig kvalitet. Tidsskriftets målgrupper er forskere og akademikere, studenter, politiske og administrative beslutningstakere, profesjonsutøvere, interesseorganisasjoner, media og en bred allmennhet.

REDAKTØR

Terje Olsen, Fafo Institutt for arbeidslivs- og velferdsforskning, Norge

REDAKSJONSSEKRETÆR

Aud Aasen

REDAKSJONSRÅD

Sven Bremberg, Karolinska Institutet, Sverige

Trine Wulf-Andersen, Roskilde Universitet, Danmark

Snæfríður Þóra Egilson, Universitetet i Island, Island

Tom Kettunen, Helsingfors Universitet, Finland

John Eriksen, OsloMet og Fafo, Norge

 

Design: Type-it AS, Trondheim

Sats: Tekstflyt AS

Omslagsdesign: KORD / Sissel Tjernstad

ISSN online: 2464-4161

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18261/issn.2464-4161

 

Tidsskriftet utgis av Universitetsforlaget AS (Scandinavian University Press) på vegne av Nordens välfärdscenter og Fafo Institutt for arbeidsliv- og velferdsforskning.

© Universitetsforlaget 2020 / Scandinavian University Press.

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