Risk assessments are used by the police in order to identify the need for victim protection. The aim of this study was to examine the inter-rater reliability of two violence risk assessment tools; the Police Screening Tool for Violent Crimes (PST-VC) and the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER), used by police employees in two different police authorities in Sweden. The inter-rater agreement was evaluated for both tools, with respect to global risk assessments, recommended protective actions and risk- and victim vulnerability factors. The main results showed that the inter-rater agreement was highest for the global assessments and widely varying, from very low to fairly high, for the structured variables. The fairly high reliability for the global risk assessments was most likely due to shared assumptions (heuristics, tacit knowledge) among the assessors rather than being based on the information obtained by the tools.
Mange innbyggere kommer i kontakt med politiet hvert år. Tidligere forskning viser at graden av tilfredshet med denne kontakten kan ha betydelig innvirkning på tilliten til politiet. Et mindre utforsket tema er hvordan ulike former for kontakt oppfattes og påvirker tilliten til politiet. Med utgangspunkt i surveydata undersøker denne artikkelen hvordan henholdsvis politi- og egeninitiert kontakt oppfattes og påvirker ulike aspekter av tillit. Undersøkelsen finner at et flertall i begge kontaktkategorier var tilfreds med kontakten, og at begge typer kontakt har en signifikant innvirkning på tillit til politiet. Imidlertid synes politiinitiert kontakt å ha en større effekt enn egeninitiert kontakt på oppfatninger om prosessuell rettferdighet, mens egeninitiert kontakt synes å ha en større effekt enn politiinitiert kontakt på oppfatninger om effektivitet. Mulige årsaker og implikasjoner av funnene drøftes mot slutten av artikkelen.
Many citizens get in contact with the police every year. Previous research shows that the degree of satisfaction with this contact might have a substantial influence on trust in the police. A less explored theme is how different forms of contact are perceived and how they are influencing trust in the police. Using survey-data this article investigates how police- and self-initiated contact are perceived and how they influence different aspects of trust. The study finds that a majority in both contact-categories was satisfied with the contact, and both types of contact have a significant influence on trust in the police. However, police-initiated contact seems to have a bigger effect than self-initiated contact on perceptions of procedural justice, while self-initiated contact seems to have a bigger effect than police-initiated contact on perceptions of effectiveness. Possible causes and implications of the findings are discussed at the end of the article.
The social context and the operational environment of the police has changed considerably around the world. Recently, that change has necessitated a restructuring in the Finnish police education. This reform is based on the belief that a higher level of education and a greater focus on research will lead to better professional skills and an increased ability to perform in the workplace. In this article, we examine the views of the staff of the Finnish Police University College on research, development and innovation activities (RDI) in the light of a survey answered by the staff. We pay special attention to the connection between the teacher’s level of different skill areas and the experienced usefulness of RDI activities from an educational point of view. On the basis of the results, RDI activities are broadly understood to concern the whole staff. The study also shows that both the teachers’ experienced RDI skills and their pedagogical skills for higher education are positively connected to their views on the experienced benefit of RDI activities. Indeed, if RDI provide the means to develop the police profession, then it is important that the related skills and the ability to transfer them are strengthened.
This interview study of Swedish police field-training officers (FTOs) and their conceptions of the task of mentoring and assessing police probationers exemplifies how a field-training task can be understood as a learning incentive for professional development amongst the FTOs. In ten individual, in-depth, interviews, the FTOs illustrate how their educational practices generate new perspectives on their policing and mentoring roles due to the incentives for reflecting on the context related to the training task. Furthermore, the findings disclose the importance of proper prerequisites in understanding the pedagogies of the field-training task, and thus creating an ethical and qualified learning environment. In the tradition of qualitative and exploratory studies, the article initiates a discussion about how a pedagogical and educational perspective on professional development can be applied to other vocations and professions.
Peberspray blev introduceret i dansk politi i 2008 med henblik på at reducere skader på borgere og betjente. Siden da er politiets brug af stav og skydevåben mindsket, men den samlede brug af magtmidler er tredoblet. Vi analyserer dette misforhold mellem hensigt og virkning ved at undersøge, hvordan danske politibetjente forholder sig til brugen af peberspray sammenlignet med andre magtmidler. Undersøgelsen bygger på interviews med ni politibetjente fra tre danske politikredse. Betjentene er overordnet meget positive over for peberspray, men beskriver også problemer med risiko for sekundær eksponering og falsk tryghedsfølelse. Vi identificerer yderligere tre gennemgående temaer i betjentenes forklaringer, som omhandler typiske situationer, afvejningen mellem spray eller stav og forholdet mellem smerte eller skade. Afslutningsvis diskuterer vi betjentenes perspektiver med afsæt i Sykes og Matzas (1957) teknikker til neutralisering af normoverskridende handlinger.