Det framkommer stadig oftere avsløringer om avvergete terroraksjoner i Europa der de mistenkte har en forhistorie som fremmedkrigere i Midtøsten. Europeiske sikkerhetstjenester frykter at denne trenden vil fortsette, og Norge, som har en stor fremmedkrigerkontingent kontrollert for folketall, synes å være mer utsatt enn før. Dette urovekkende trusselbildet ble ytterligere forverret sommeren 2014 da PST «slo terroralarm», angivelig basert på rapporter om en forestående aksjon planlagt av jihadister i Syria.
Norwegian Muslim Foreign Fighters
A growing number of recent terrorist plots in Europe involve individuals who have fought in the civil war in Syria. European security services believe this trend will continue. Norway has one of the largest foreign fighter contingents in Syria and Iraq controlled for its population. The perceived threat associated with returning foreign fighters was amplified during the summer of 2014, when the Norwegian Police Security Service (PST) issued an unprecedented general “terrorism alert”, warning that a group of jihadis based in Syria might be preparing an attack on Norwegian soil. This article aims to contextualize Norway’s Muslim foreign fighter phenomenon. It recounts historical examples of Norwegian Muslim nationals joining armed conflicts abroad and discusses the possible causes for the dramatic increase in Norwegian foreign fighter activities since 2012. An estimated 70 Norwegian nationals have so far gone to Syria and Iraq. We address the foreign fighters’ backgrounds, their pathways to militancy and their motives for going. The article intends to contribute to an understanding of why and how young Norwegian Muslims pack up and leave a safe existence in one of the richest countries in the world, to risk their lives as “Holy Warriors” in faraway battlefields.
Key words: Foreign fighter, terrorism, Syria, Jihadism
I 1855 falt en høyesterettsdom som siden har vært under mistanke for å ha vært politisk motivert, en dom som satte en stopper for en folkelig, politisk bevegelse, Arbeider-Foreningerne. Lederen, Marcus Thrane, og andre fremtredende medlemmer av foreningene ble idømt lengre fengselsstraffer – for å ha hatt til «Hensigt at kuldkaste eller ved Lovstridige Midler at forandre Norges Statsforfatning […]», som det het i loven.1Kriminalloven av 1842, kapittel 9, § 1.
The Trial of Marcus Thrane
The leaders of the Norwegian workers’ associations, Marcus Thrane, was in 1855 sentenced to several years in prison for having attempted to overturn the constitution by unlawful means, i.e. by planning revolution or some kind of uproar. He was, however, innocent in this, which the supreme court seems to have been aware of. This wrongful conviction has nevertheless often been interpreted as an answer to a revolutionary situation in general, and thereby defended to a certain extent. In this article I argue that the wrongful conviction should be interpreted as such, and thereby play a more significant role in how 19th century development of the Norwegian constitution should be interpreted. In short: The actions of the Supreme Court seriously questions both the notion of the Norwegian state as one being ruled by law, as well as notions of a peaceful democratic development in the 19th century. The workers’ associations did in fact work for democratic reforms, and this was the exact project that was stopped by the actions of the Supreme Court.
Key words: Rule of law, freedom of speech, Norwegian workers’ associations, Marcus Thrane
Karbonfangst og -lagring, Carbon Capture and Storage eller CCS som det ofte forkortes, kan meget vel vise seg å være et fullstendig feilslått klimaprosjekt. Her hjemme står kanskje vanskelighetene på Mongstad frem som det mest synlige eksemplet. Nyere forskningslitteratur som sammenstiller det som finnes på feltet bekrefter også et slikt bilde mer generelt. Samtidig figurerer CCS fremdeles i de fleste framskrivninger om hvordan klimaproblemet kan løses, og brukes aktivt av politikere i diskusjoner om hvordan vi skal nå klimamålene.
CCS – the impossible situation
With an abundance of cheap fossil fuel resources still available, it seems unlikely that renewable energy will emerge as a singular solution to the problem of climate change. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is continually presented as an indispensable element of most climate change mitigation scenarios, offering the possibility of the utilisation of existing resources with reduced environmental impact. Meanwhile, the technology underlying CCS is more precarious than ever. This article will consider this paradox. I will argue that CCS forces us to decide between two impossible positions – unrealistic technological forecasts and an out-dated belief in societal changes. Confronted by an unlikely technological vision such as CCS, there is no satisfactory reason to respond with an equally idealistic political vision. I will conclude by suggesting that we adopt an alternative approach that does not force us to either give up, nor to base future predictions on shaky ground.
Key words: Carbon Capture and Storage, climate change, technological utopias