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Leder
(side 234-236)
av Cathrine Holst
(side 237-246)
av Kåre Johan Mjør
23. januar 2012 publiserte dåverande statsminister og presidentkandidat Vladimir Putin ein artikkel i den russiske dagsavisa Nezavisimaja gazeta med tittelen «Russland: Det nasjonale spørsmålet». Her definerer Putin Russland som ein «unik sivilisasjon ...
SammendragEngelsk sammendrag
23. januar 2012 publiserte dåverande statsminister og presidentkandidat Vladimir Putin ein artikkel i den russiske dagsavisa Nezavisimaja gazeta med tittelen «Russland: Det nasjonale spørsmålet». Her definerer Putin Russland som ein «unik sivilisasjon». Kva ligg det i dette og kvar kjem denne språkbruken frå?

Russian Civilizational Nationalism

The article explores the so-called “civilizational nationalism” that is becoming increasingly popular in post-Soviet Russia, as seen most recently in an article Vladimir Putin published in January 2012. Here he adopts the rhetoric of “Russia as a unique civilization” that had previously been developed by Russian public intellectuals and academics. Having outlined the general features of this ideology, the article provides a more detailed discussion of one of the most significant theoreticians of this nationalism, Aleksandr Panarin. His views are compared, in turn, with those of Nikolai Danilevskii, the nineteenth-century writer who introduced “civilization” into Russian public discourse. Despite the many similarities, for instance a shared critique of Eurocentrism, it is demonstrated that nineteenth-century ideas of a Russian civilization differ significantly from the post-Soviet ones, above all in the former’s temporal orientation towards the future. Post-Soviet civilizational nationalism, in contrast, locates Russian civilization first and foremost in the past.

Keywords: Russian nationalism,civilization theories,conceptual history,
(side 248-258)
av Christine Hansen
Høsten 2009 publiserte Dagbladet en dystopisk versjon av det nasjonal-ikoniske maleriet Brudeferd i Hardanger. I 2010 landet en bunadskledd paraglider rett foran Jens Stoltenberg da han besøkte Sima kraftstasjon i Eidfjord ...
SammendragEngelsk sammendrag
Høsten 2009 publiserte Dagbladet en dystopisk versjon av det nasjonal-ikoniske maleriet Brudeferd i Hardanger. I 2010 landet en bunadskledd paraglider rett foran Jens Stoltenberg da han besøkte Sima kraftstasjon i Eidfjord. Samme år ble den bunadskledde Synnøve Kvamme arrestert og båret bort av politiet. Dette er noen eksempler på protestene som fulgte i kjølvannet av Statsnetts kunngjøring om å bygge en ny kraftlinje i Hardanger. I artikkelen diskuteres spørsmål rundt visualiseringen av det nasjonale landskap med utgangspunkt i Hardangersaken.

The Hardanger Issue and the Visualization of a National Landscape

In 2006 Statsnett decided to build a new power line in Hardanger. With an eye to this highly controversial decision, the article discusses the visual representation of the Hardanger area and the idea of a national landscape. The article argues that the photographic manipulations of glossy tourist photographs of Hardanger used in the resistance to the construction of overhead power lines, helped the controversy to evolve to a national dispute. The protesters took advantage of an image of Norway rooted in the national romanticist period. Few seem to have reflected on the fact that this area, in addition to having a spectacular landscape, has also been heavy industrialized since the early 20th century. While the peasant romanticism still persists as a possible visualization of the area, any suggestion that this region also includes industry and power plants seems to provoke strong emotions. The article argues that images of the industrialized Hardanger are underrepresented in the public eye.

Keywords: Hardanger,Photography,Nationalism,Industrialized Landscape,Environmentalism
(side 259-270)
av Espen Søbye
Ved sykehjemmene pleies mange av personer som ikke er født i Norge. Uttrykker en slik umiddelbar iakttakelse en reell sammenheng mellom en aldrende befolkning og innvandring? Alle som vil fylle ...
SammendragEngelsk sammendrag
Ved sykehjemmene pleies mange av personer som ikke er født i Norge. Uttrykker en slik umiddelbar iakttakelse en reell sammenheng mellom en aldrende befolkning og innvandring? Alle som vil fylle 80 år eller mer i Norge i 2092 er allerede født, men hvor mange av dem har kommet til verden utenfor landets grenser, og hvor mange av dem som er født i Norge vil ha utvandret?

Demographic transitions

Is there a connection between immigration and the fact that the Norwegian people get older? The question is tried to be answered by presenting the theory of the demographic transition. In the interwar period a common pattern of the declines in fertility and mortality from the eighteenth century that was fulfilled in the twentieth century, was discovered in several western countries. After the Second World War this observation was developed to a theory. It was assumed that the fall in mortality that always starts the transmission also starts a chain-reaction with social and economic consequences. The transmission from high and fluctuating to low and stable rates of births and deaths have been claimed to be one of the main achievements of mankind over the last 500 years. With few exceptions the demographic transmission has been adapted on the development of the Norwegian population development from 1735 to present, with the exclusion of the fall in mortality by the end of the Napoleon wars. A theory of a second demographic has been suggested, this is characterized by immigration and sub-replacement fertility.

Keywords: Demographic transitions,migration,vital statistics,economic development
(side 271-284)
av Marianne Egeland
I 2011 dømte dansk rett til fordel for Gyldendal og Helge Bille Nielsen i saken som Thomas Skade-Rasmussen Strøbech hadde anlagt mot dem for «identitetstyveri». Dommen bekrefter tidligere rettspraksis og ...
SammendragEngelsk sammendrag
I 2011 dømte dansk rett til fordel for Gyldendal og Helge Bille Nielsen i saken som Thomas Skade-Rasmussen Strøbech hadde anlagt mot dem for «identitetstyveri». Dommen bekrefter tidligere rettspraksis og andre personers erfaring: Forfattere kan ustraffet legge tekstene sine tett på virkeligheten og skrive hva de vil om levende mennesker. Bare de definerer utgivelsen som fiksjon og holder et visst nivå, har modellene deres ingen ting de skulle ha sagt. Konsekvensene av en slik praksis skal her belyses med et 50 år gammelt eksempel: Sylvia Plath.

Literary characters strike back: The case of Sylvia Plath

The reception of Karl Ove Knausgård’s My struggle-series has, with few exceptions, been unconcerned with the many ethical questions that arise from his use of real life models for his own literary purposes. For the sake of art, most reviewers readily admitted the author extensive allowances. Although his admirers have presented Knausgård as a literary pioneer, his incorporating living persons and historical incidents are, of course, old news, as are also the moral dilemmas involved. When people protest at becoming literary figures, the court tends to side with the literary establishment. In order to highlight the position of those who feel abused by literature this article discusses the case of Sylvia Plath and her confessional writing. Plath’s posthumous reputation results in large part from the autobiographical basis of both her poetry (Ariel) and novel (The Bell Jar), from suicide attempts, electro shocks and accusations she according to literally minded readers directs at close relatives. Her suicide at the age of thirty, in 1962, makes the ethical issues all the more pertinent.

Keywords: Literature and ethics,use of living models
Kommentar
(side 285-292)
av Gudmund Hernes
Fremragende
(side 293-304)
av Narve Fulsås
The University of Oslo was founded just a few years before Norways independence in 1814 and was for more than a century the only university in Norway. A university history project ...
Engelsk sammendrag

University of Oslo 1811–2011

The University of Oslo was founded just a few years before Norway’s independence in 1814 and was for more than a century the only university in Norway. A university history project, initiated in the early 1990s, has resulted in a 9 volume history published on the occasion of the 200th anniversary in 2011. The new university history stands out as a series of highly interesting and well written books which documents the vital importance of the university for the state, for nation building and for society, as well as the major transformations it has undergone with the coming of the research university and mass education. The ambitions of overall coherence, internal coordination, and a common conceptual and analytical framework throughout the work, have been downplayed. The review examines some methodological and theoretical questions concerning concepts, chronology, and periodization, and discusses challenges that are connected to the ambition of integrating the history of the institution with the history of disciplines and departments.

Keywords: University history,history of science and humanities
Kommentar
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