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Terrorangrepene i Oslo og på Utøya har blant mye annet avstedkommet en debatt om ytringsfrihet og ytringsansvar. Her ser vi nærmere på problematiske sider ved utbredte forståelser av ytringsfriheten og dens grenser. Vi argumenterer for at det er utfordrende sider ved utviklingen av hatefulle ytringer på internett som vanskelig lar seg besvare med henvisninger til habermasianske forståelser av hvordan den offentlige sfære fungerer.
The terror attacks in Oslo and at Utøya on 22/7 2011 have raised a public debate about freedom of expression and the responsibilities inherent to its exercise. In this article, we raise questions concerning widespread interpretations of freedom of expression in Norwegian society. The road to present notions of freedom of expression as a doxa in Norwegian society started with the Rushdie affair and its repercussions in Norway. We analyse the flaws of the report of the Norwegian Commission on Freedom of Expression (1999), as well as the flaws of the Sjølie verdict of the Norwegian Supreme Court (2002), which may both be seen as signposts on the road to an extension of freedom of expression in Norway. We argue that contemporary articulations of hate speech – particularly, but not exclusively, on the internet – pose challenges which classical and idealized Habermasian conceptualisations of how the public sphere functions are unable to provide satisfactory solutions to.
Norske forskere spekulerte i Dagserevyen den 22. juli 2011 om et islamistisk angrep, men det viste seg snart at den ansvarlige, Anders Behring Breivik, hadde blitt inspirert av et helt annet politisk miljø. Denne artikkelen ser nærmere på gjerningsmannens inspiratorer og på hvilke aktører som kan ha hatt interesse av å bruke ham. Her framheves ikke minst voldelige nettverk og finansielle bånd som Breiviks manifest og andre vitnesbyrd peker mot.
The terrorist attacks in Norway on 22 July 2011 were first described as an al-Qaeda operation. When Anders Behring Breivik was arrested and we were able to look at his video and read his manifesto, it became clear that he was inspired by Jewish-Christian anti-jihadist writers, the very individuals that had pointed to al-Qaeda in the first place. Some critics argued that Breivik had been used by Israeli forces with an interest in changing Norway’s policy towards Palestine, as if Breivik had copied the Israeli bombing of the British headquarters in Jerusalem in 1946, on the very anniversary of that attack. However, inspiration and interests are not enough. One also has to look at Breivik’s contacts that supposedly financed him and initiated him into his crusading «Knights Templar» order. Breivik himself points to Serbian crusaders, while others points to an East-European military mafia. The two converge, however, into one network that is surprisingly close to Saudi and Chechen intelligence and to the very Islamists that Breivik detests, as though Breivik’s Knights Templar were the mirror image of al-Qaeda.
Ordet neger og potensielt krenkende fremstillinger er i flere omganger renset ut av Egners visetekster – noe av Egner selv, og noe av andre aktører etter Egners død. I en ny utgave av Mark Twains klassiker The adventures of Huckleberry Finn er ordet «nigger» endret til «slave». Revisjon av denne typen vekker stadig debatt. For bør vi rense trykte tekster for støtende ord? Og er dette kritikkverdig sensur eller en nødvendig tilpasning?
The word «negro» and other potentially offensive representations have several times been removed from Egners songs – by Egner himself and by others after Egners death. The word «nigger» is changed to «slave» in a new edition of Mark Twain's classic The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. This kind of revision gives rise to debate: When is it right to clean printed texts? And is this practice reprehensible censorship or a necessary adaptation?
Thorbjørn Egner revised constantly. Thus many of his songs are printed in several versions. Which (book) edition we choose, thus controls which version we know. This article investigates and presents the edition history of four of the revised songs. All editions are examined and compared with focus on: What happens when Egner edits? Can we characterize the variants as significant or irrelevant? Finally, the article highlights various issues related to censorship of texts already printed and published: How do variations affect the reception? And what historical and ethical-political problems occur when cleaning or removing printed texts?
I Danmark har flere aviser, i særdeleshet Jyllands-Posten og Ekstra Bladet, vært poliske aktører – aktive fremmere av bestemte standpunkt – i innvandringsdebatten. I tillegg til gjentatte ganger å ha uttrykt negative holdninger til innvandring og innvandrere i lederartikler, har de hatt et sterkt journalistisk fokus på innvandring. Det er liten tvil om at negative stereotyper har vært vanlig når innvandrere har blitt beskrevet også i norske og svenske medier. Selv om vi ikke har sett anti-innvandrings-kampanjer som i Danmark, kan det tenkes at pressen også her har bidratt til å fremme et restriktivt syn på innvandringspolitikk?
Culcom var aldri ment å skulle være et senter for fremragende forskning. I stedet for spissing av innsatsen, slik tanken har vært bak etableringen av sentre for frem-ragende forskning, var Culcom det motsatte: Man skulle tenke bredt og favne vidt. Faktisk over fem fakultet. Ambisjonene var det altså ingenting å si på.
Culcom was never meant to be a Centre of Excellence (CoE). Whereas Centres of Excellence are sharpening and deepening their research efforts, Culcom was established as a wide-ranging and inclusive strategical research program at the University of Oslo for the period 2004–2010. The program was set up to comprise researchers within five faculties: the Faculty of Humanities, the Faculty of Social Sciences, the Faculty of Law, the Faculty of Theology and the Faculty of Educational Sciences. This was not a modest ambition, and I cannot evaluate all activities undertaken. Yet it is my impression that the program has successfully built a network of researchers working on topics related to cultural complexities, and also in disseminating their research to a wider audience. For this activity, Culcom received, well deserved, the Universitys 2010 Award for Excellence in Research Dissemination. The program has also funded a large number of scholarships for master- and PhD.-students, which is a valuable human capital investment for the future. However, research efforts of such a broad program will need more time to grow organically to fulfill an ambition of multi-disciplinary, integrated research.
In Norway, the coordination of primary health care and hospital services has hitherto been inadequate. In June 2011, two laws, constituting the so-called Coordination Reform, passed the Storting. A main goal of the Reform is to reduce expenses for hospital services by emphasising preventive measures, primary health care, nursing homes and other services for the elderly. A joint law for health and social services imposes increased responsibilities on the local municipalities, including municipal co-financing of hospital services.
The Reform is characterized by ambivalence. On the one hand, new duties are imposed on the municipalities and the patients legal rights are jointed under one law (pasientrettighetsloven). On the other hand, the Reform apparently intends to limit the increasing professionalisation among health workers by introducing the term «professional neutrality» (for personnel allowed to perform certain tasks).
The Reform is considered a half-hearted attempt to cut expenses and – at the same time – reduce the gap between the demand for health services and the offers available. Stronger economical and organizational steps must probably be taken to attain the aim.