«Universitetet–nå også for sportsidioter.» Dette var overskriften i avisa BA (Bergensavisen) den 5. januar 2001. Nyheten var at vi på Institutt for medievitenskap ved Universitetet i Bergen nå kunne tilby hovedfagsstudentene et kurs om sport, medier og journalistikk. Den fordomsfulle forestillingen om «sportsidioter» holdes altså ennå i live. Man kan forsøke å forestille seg avisoverskrifter som «Universitetet– nå også for folkemusikkidioter» eller «Universitetet–nå også for screenwritingidioter». Det går selvfølgelig ikke, for da handler det jo om en type legitimert kultur.
Analyses of mediated sport are not yet an integral part of media studies in Norway. Nevertheless, as the study of mediated sport is expanding internationally, it is also steadily gaining academic legitimacy. The article presents an overview of seminal studies in an international, Nordic and Norwegian context. It further reviews research on mediated sport in specific media, such as television, newspapers, press photographs, literature, radio, film, and the Internet. It is argued that the study of sport stars is a new and expanding trend combining cultural and political economy analyses of the social role of mediated sport.
De siste årene har det skjedd en rask utvikling og omstrukturering av det norske TV-markedet. Et avgjørende vendepunkt inntraff da Telenor i juli 2001 kjøpte opp franske Canal Digital, og siden kjøpte rettighetene til kampene til årets fotball-VM. Kampene ble solgt til seerne gjennom betalingskanalen Canal Digital, og kostet 599 kroner: De gamle rivalene NRK og TV 2 fikk to direktesendte VM-kamper hver:
When TV 2 entered the Norwegian television market in 1992, sport became a means for the public service broadcaster NRK to maintain its financial position and its role as the largest broadcaster in Norway. During the years dealt with in this study (1992 to 2000), both TV 2 and NRK focused on popular sporting events and daily sport news. Because of the importance of sport, NRK and TV 2 scheduled their sports coverage at the same time – or nearly the same time – both when covering a number of major events and in their daily schedules. NRK practised that strategy more actively than TV 2 did. Moreover, NRK made use of a variety of commercial strategies to attract viewers after TV 2 entered the market.
This article analyses the market for TV sports rights in Europe compared with the US TV markets. It reveals that the most expensive soccer rights have become even more expensive than the NFL rights, which are the most costly US sports rights. The most attractive European products (the soccer rights) have been acquired by pay-TV. This is different from the US, where free-to-air advertising channels still dominate. European sports rights remain considerably cheaper when acquired exclusively by free-to-air channels. One reason for this is the regulation of European broadcasting. Public service broadcasters are not allowed to construct a menu of programmes that is based on purely commercial considerations, and some of them are not permitted to sell advertising at all. In addition, advertising on TV in general is still heavily regulated in Europe. These regulations reduce the channels' financial capabilities, and thus also their bids for sports rights. The profitability of sports rights deals is extremely vulnerable to negative changes in demand because of the high degree of sunk costs. Thus the history of TV sports rights in Europe and the US also includes a number of unprofitable deals.
Nike's marketing campaigns show that the company wants to appear smaller than what it actually is. Through televised commercials or printed advertisements, Nike wants to convey joy about the sport itself by using expressions of authenticity and honesty. Nike's advertising strategy is about being streetsmart, focusing on sport as a game. The ads and commercials use the target audience’s own language, in a strategy that has been called guerrilla commercials.
Through these marketing campaigns Nike is building a separate universe, where the heroes are sports super stars but you and I can participate on some level. Nike's latest campaigns have focused on soccer.
Hattrick is a text based Internet football game which simulates the managing of a football team. The article describes how this game is embedded partly in computer game culture and partly in football culture. First, the game is considered as a representation of a postindustrial cultural logic where the boundary between producing and consuming is blurred. Second, a focus is put on the intertextual relation between Hattrick and journalistic representations of sports in other media. Third, in focusing on the social use of the game, it is argued that Hat- trick gives football enthusiasts an opportunity to 're-use' their knowledge of the game acquired through media consumption and social interaction.
Hvilke nye digitale rom kan åpnes dersom man anvender perspektiv fra forskning på teater? Og hvilke nye rom åpnes i teatervitenskapen når teatervitere undersøker nye digitale medier?
This article is approaching the study of simultaneously interactive «places» in net communication as one in which cross disciplinary and interdisciplinary study is a necessity. The argument is that no singe subject theory, with terminologies which are derived from and has developed through, well defined subject areas and their categorised objects of analysis, can alone give credits to the diversity of some practices taking place by and through digital media. This is argued here through a comparison between terms and theory from the liberal arts fields of literature and theatre, and also by comparing these terminologies, and their approaches to knowledge, to some terminology and approaches of the sociological field. Some overall belief systems implicitly expressed through the interweaving of ancient myth and technology is also pointed out, to show the need for an overall cultural understanding when approaching digital media.
Henrik G. Bastiansen
Herom har jeg nærmere telegraferet til Kongen. Telegraf og telefon i norsk politikk 1850-1940.
Oslo: Norsk Telemuseum, 2001
Nyheten som hypertekst Tekstuelle aspekter ved møtet mellom en gammel sjanger og ny teknologi.
Kristiansand: IJ-forlaget, 2001
Flokkdyr på Løvebakken? Søkelys på Stortingets presselosje og politikkens medierammer.
Oslo: Pax Forlag, 2001.
Sara Brinck og Gunnar Iversen
Virkelighetsbilder. Norsk dokumentarfilm gjennom hundre år.
Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 2001
Mørkets øyne. Filmkritikk, vurdering og analyse.
Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 2002
Ragnar Waldahl, Michael Bruun Andersen og Helge Rønning
Nyheter først og fremst. Norske tv-nyheter: myter og realiteter.
Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 2002
Med fjernsynet i barnets tjeneste. NRK-fjernsynets programvirksomhet for barn på 60- og 70-tallet.
Oslo: Unipub forlag, 2002
Talerens troverdighet Tekniske og kulturelle betingelser for politisk retorikk.
Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 2002.