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Åpen tilgang
Kroppen – Annorlundaskapets konstruktör
representationen av funktionshindrade i Sveriges public-service television (SVT)
(side 7-22)
av Karin Ljuslinder
SammendragEngelsk sammendrag

Kroppen är central i Sveriges televisions representation av människor med funktionshindrade. Vad är det för symbolska betydelser som produceras när kroppen står som index för en funktionshindrad person? I korthet kan man säga att det är annorlundaskap. Den ofullstädiga, avvikande kroppen lyfts fram som kärnan i alla tänkbara subjektpositioner som den funktionshindrade kan anta.

The symbolic value of the physical body in contemporary society has steadily increased, and there is nothing sensational about saying the same applies to the representation of disabled people in the mass media.

Such representation conveys an ideological message; when you draw attention to a person's broken body you are making a statement about their social position. However, we must remember the body is only a part and not the whole human being.

What can Swedish Television do to stop contributing to this situation? Heighten the social position of disabled persons into something more than one of impairment? Try out irony as a tool for increasing the awareness of the public? Irony after all, is far more than a certain kind of humour technique. We need to be allowed to watch television programs in which multiplicity is the norm, rather than the exception.

Åpen tilgang
(side 23-41)
av Margrét Helgadóttir Næss
SammendragEngelsk sammendrag

Fremstillinger av menn og kvinner i Hollywoodproduserte actionfilmer på 1980- og 90-tallet kan synes å representere noe nytt i forhold til den tradisjonelle iscenesettelsen av kjønn i Hollywoodfilmen. Er Hollywood virkelig på revolusjonære nye veier med de nye konstruksjonene av kjønn og kropp, eller er det bare kamuflerte stereotypier av gammel årgang?

The shifting images of men and women in the Hollywood action cinema in the 1980s and 1990s seem almost revolutionary compared to the traditional gender construction in the Hollywood cinema. The male body becomes increasingly visible with the muscular heroes in the 1980s. This heightens the problematic issue of the man as an erotic object. In addition to this, the late 1980s and 1990s have seen a series of movies featuring aggressive, gun-toting and muscular heroines. However, the article reveals that many of these new images of gender are following old gender traits. The action cinema never fully displays the man as a pleasurable object, and the rebellious independence of the action heroine is neutralized.

Åpen tilgang
Kroppen kommer hjem
— hvordan epistemofilen havnet på Ally McBeals do
(side 43-59)
av Monica Rudberg
SammendragEngelsk sammendrag

Hva skjer med vårt forhold til kroppen i en tid da subjektstatus også erobres av kvinner? Denne artikkelen leter etter et svar på dette spørsmålet i fjernsynets fiksjonsunivers. Hva sier Ally McBeal, Sally Spectra i Glamour og de kvinnelige obdusentene i de nye politiseriene?

Today, bodies in the media are often presented as more alienated and haunted than ever, and it seems reasonable to relate this to recent changes in gender discourses and where women are in the process of conquering status as historical subjects. Making use of the psychoanalytical concepts of epistemophilia and abjection in order to grasp the processes of desire involved in body construction, some consequences of this gender change are suggested in relation to an analysis of mainly three television serials. Firstly, there is the turning of the abject female body into a grotesque body, shown in the character of Sally in the American soap opera The bold and the beautiful; secondly, there is the omnipotent female pathologist in new police dramas, here mainly represented by Silent witness, a mini serial from New Zealand, where the traditionally abject status of femaleness is turned into divine powers, and thirdly, there is the tendency of erasing sexual differences shown in the unisex toilet of Ally McBeal. These media images present different solutions to the upheaval of the bodily order, where men have been defined as epistemophilic subjects searching for the secret of the female body and women have been positioned as abject (fascinating and disgusting). Whether these options are actually at work in concrete constructions of gender among empirical subjects, and how pedagogues are to evaluate these discursive options, are questions that are still to be answered.

Åpen tilgang
Greenaways Pillow Book
Om Kroppen, Kønnet, Kunsten og Døden
(side 61-80)
av Karen Klitgaard Povlsen
Engelsk sammendrag

This essay is on the film The Pillow-book by Peter Greenaway (1996). Through a close reading of the film it is argued that the film is a tragedy on feminism as a perversity. The female protagonist grows up in Japan in the 1970s. Her father is a writer, her mother, grandmother and aunt traditionally Asian – and rather passive women. But the father is no patriarch, the patriarch in the family is the publisher, who has sex with and publishes the books of the father. The father inscribes the face of his daughter each birthday. This combined with her viewing her father having sex with the publisher on her birthday perverts her sexuality. Her sexual climax depends on being written on, until she herself begins to write on the skin of men, encouraged by her lover and translator Jerome, who dies. The protagonist writes thirteen books, all very inspired by the 1000 year old The Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon. Ultimately one of her 'books' kills the publisher. However, this film is not a film on feminist liberation. The film depicts the feminist project as a tragical one, which ultimately ends up with death, rigidness and a new traditionalism and conservatism – only in female surroundings. Feminism is a pervert solution to the suppression of women/which the film does not deny. On the contrary – it shows the suppression vividly and beautifully. The film is so beautiful, that one forgets its tragic dimensions. This essay proposes to read this contradiction in terms of sadomasochism. The feminist in this film is not only self-destructive, she is enjoying her pain, stylishing it into art, inspired by the pillow book from the year 998. Thus Peter Greenaway is not a misogynist. He is a cultural critic mourning the suppression of women, which makes them into perverts, when they try to liberate themselves.

Åpen tilgang
(side 81-98)
av Kirsten Frandsen
SammendragEngelsk sammendrag

Eftersom sportskroppen er en fysisk stærk bevæge-krop kombineret med en aggressiv koncurrancementalitet, har aktive sportskvinder rokket ved kulturelt dominerende forestillinger om kvindekønnet som et sart og blidt, passivt objekt for mannes begær. Kvinder har med deres indtog i sporten med andre ord udfordret og pirret det maskuline perspektiv som stadig er dominerende i sportsjournalistikken.

This article focuses on why and how mass media coverage of sport articulates ideological attitudes which are culturally dominant in regard to race, national identity and, in particular, gender.

From an eclectic theoretical perspective it is argued, if sport is conceived as a visual and bodily game phenomenon playing a significant ritualistic role in modem society, we can understand how and why the sports body becomes an extremely powerful rhetoric vehicle for the articulation of ideological attitudes.

This is followed by an analysis of Danish media coverage of women participating in the Olympic Games in London 1848. At this time women's appearance in the field of sports was something rather new, and the analysis shows, that seen from the male journalists' perspective, the appearance of women in this clearly masculine field was both provocative and ideologically incomprehensible. The analysis is put into perspective using a brief comparison with Danish media's coverage of the women's European Championship and World Championship in handball in the nineties.

Åpen tilgang
(side 99-113)
av Liv Hausken
SammendragEngelsk sammendrag

Medievitenskap er fremdeles en ung disiplin som sliter med teoretisk arvegods fra andre disipliner, noen ganger uten å vite det. Disiplinen er dessuten svært heterogen både emnemessig og metodisk, og dens studieobjekter–mediene–er i stadig endring. Alt dette representerer store utfordringer for det medievitenskapelige feltet. Den største utfordringen er kanskje ikke å henge med, men å holde tungen beint i munnen og tillate seg å tenke.

This paper outlines some of the textual theoretical challenges in the field of media studies, tentatively identifying them as two major forms of blindness: blindness towards the medium, and blindness towards the text. Several examples are used to identify and exemplify different instances of these two forms of blindness. An excessively low degree of conceptual precision is common to all. The paper seeks to show why this is a problem, and suggests a solution.

Åpen tilgang
(side 115-123)
av Katherine J. Goodnow
Ny litteratur
Åpen tilgang
(side 131-135)
av Lisbeth Morlandstø

Stig Finslo (red.) (1999) Redaktøren skal ivareta ytringsfriheten … – Redaktørinstituttets status 1999, Årbok fra Norsk Redaktørforening, Kristiansand: IJ-forlaget.

Åpen tilgang
(side 135-136)
av Ulf Dalquist

Jerslev, Anne (1999): Det er bare film: Unges videofællesskaber og vold på film. København: Gyldendal

Åpen tilgang
(side 136-139)
av Odd Raaum

Lars Arve Røssland (1999): Presseskikkens samtale. Samtaleposisjonar for Norsk Presseforbund sitt faglege utval 1930–1972. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.

Åpen tilgang
(side 139-143)
av Kathrine Skretting

Espen Ytreberg (1999): Allmennkringkastingens autoritet – Endringer i NRK Fjernsynets tekstproduksjon 1987–1994, Oslo: Institutt for medier og kommunikasjon, Universitetet i Oslo

Åpen tilgang
(side 143-147)
av Knut Helland

Stig Hjarvard (1999): TV-nyheder i konkurrence. København: Samfundslitteratur.

Åpen tilgang
(side 147-149)
av Anne Gjelsvik

Karen Klitgaard Povlsen (1999): Beverly Hills 90210 – soaps, ironi og danske unge. Århus: Klim

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