Contemporary cultural policy programmes in Western Europe and in the Nordic countries have their direct origin in the welfare state after World War II, and in some countries they can be traced back to the 1930s. However, also in the Nordic countries, the states supported heritage, cultural institutions and even single artists long before the concept of “cultural policy” was coined. From the mid-19th century the state in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway engaged in supporting heritage and the arts. Nation building was a strong driving force in the states’ intervention in culture, and artists were supposed to be bearers of national characters.
But in liberal states of the 19th century, with individual democratic rights, and among them was the freedom of expression, artists were no longer loyal to state power and religious dogmas. On the contrary, many became critics and rebels who made themselves spokesmen for radical ideas beyond bourgeois establishment and the Christian belief. Artists’ and intellectuals’ attack on traditional values and institutions was later called “cultural radicalism”. Often cultural radicalism was associated with left wing liberal ideas in art worlds and academic circles. And one of the cultural and political issues of the time was the conflict between cultural radicalism and Christian conservatism.
This article, which rests on a historical study of state support for literature in Norway 1863–1938, demonstrates that conflict. My study has a specific focus on an arrangement of state grants to writers of fiction called “writer’s salary”, which meant that the Norwegian parliament (Stortinget) assigned lifelong salaries to selected and “distinguished” writers who were expected to contribute to cultural nation building. In the period 1863–1938 there was a lot of political controversy in the parliament about writers who were typically critical to the Christian faith, to the Lutheran State High Church and the clergy, and even to the Low Church laymen movement. They criticized the bourgeois family and marriage as institutions, and were politically and culturally radical in attitudes and values.
The structure of the policy model for state support to literary fiction made political confrontations inevitable since the parliament made its decisions mainly on political and moral grounds, not on aesthetic ones. There was no “arm’s length body” of literature experts between the writers who applied for state support and the politicians of the government and the parliament. Single decisions followed ordinary political procedures, so even in cases where the parliament rejected a controversial writer’s application for economic support, it was formally not a political censoring. State support for cultural purposes, like any other purpose, was practiced according to general political procedures.
The aim of this article is to discuss the Cartesian paradox in Norwegian cultural policy and its implications both for cultural policy and cultural policy research. On the one hand, Norwegian cultural policy has emphasised the cognitive capacities that are developed through people’s experience of arts and culture. This emphasis reflects the Cartesian perspective, where the mind is seen as that which defines humans as social beings. On the other hand, the experience of arts and culture depends on our sensory apparatus, which is located in our body. I will argue that the Cartesian perspective represents a doxa – in the Bourdieusian sense – through which important structures and patterns in Norwegian cultural policy discourse are reproduced. The discussion of these implications will revolve around three examples: the valuation of different ways of appreciating art, the hierarchisation of art forms and some gender issues in cultural policy discourse.
This article analyses the equality of the Finnish field of arts and the career paths of disabled and Deaf artists. It presents three artist path types: typical artist path, “special” artist path, and becoming impaired pushes one to artistry. It also discusses the factors that affect the careers of disabled and Deaf artists in Finland. The main focus is on professional art education, work, and livelihood. The experiences of the artists are analysed in a theoretical framework based on the social model of disability and other social perspectives to disability, particularly the concepts of disablism and ableism. The results show that many unequal practices prevail in art education and the overall arts field. The data consist of writings and interviews of disabled and Deaf artists as well as the artist archive of the Finnish DuvTeatern. The data were collected in 2017–2018 and analysed using qualitative content analysis.
This article1The article is based on a Masters thesis titled “Public Funding for Rhythmic Musicians” by the same authors. zooms in on the Danish public funding system for rhythmic music and its ability to accommodate the challenges facing middle-layer musicians today. With a focus on the regional venues (regionale spillesteder), we examine whether this specific funding program, which was established around the millennium, has managed to acclimatize to the developments that the music business has undergone the past 20 years.
The shift from physical listening formats to digital streaming services has transformed the way music is listened to, how artists are remunerated as well as the business models of record labels among other areas. Collectively, these developments have created an unbalance in regard to the actors who profit. The casualties are middle-layer artists who experience significant impediments to their chances of creating and sustaining careers within the business.
Our analysis of the publicly funded regional venues demonstrates that these fall short in certain areas, mainly with regard to the promotion task and talent development. Both areas for which the venues bear formal responsibility. In addition, an increasingly internationalized curation of acts at some regional venues is hampering the creation and progression of careers of Danish middle-layer artists.
We question the effectiveness of the regional venue program as a funding tool to manage the needs of contemporary rhythmic middle-layer musicians, and we also ask if the program is tasked with too many responsibilities. We find that the promotion task should transition into a shared affair between the artist and the venue and that venues to a higher extent should prioritize partnerships with local actors. Additionally, we find that the task of talent development is most effectively handled outside this funding program. Preferably by the creation of new funding programs for managers and record labels.
In most countries, the established churches constitute an important component of heritage and culture, both material and immaterial. While the financing of arts and culture in general is heavily researched, the literature on church economy and the financing of established (national) churches is limited. How wealthy are the churches today? How much do they receive in income per annum? How are they financed? How does public expenditure on churches compare with public expenditure on the cultural sector in general? The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the economy of the established churches in the Nordic countries: Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland and Iceland. Furthermore, these Nordic church economies will be compared with the established churches in Scotland and England, which operate with a different model of financing (based on private donations). The study is based on an extensive empirical work and a comprehensive data collection drawing on a variety of available sources. This is a truly novel contribution, being the first study of its kind. The results of our study show significant differences in the level of income in the seven national churches. This is interesting, as levels of religiosity do not differ greatly between the seven countries, and any differences are not correlated with the level of income. It is beyond the scope of this article to explain the difference we have found in the level of income of the established churches. However, the results show that level of income of the churches in the Nordic countries is quite high – also compared with the total public expenditure on arts and culture in general.
1/2021, Vol. 24
Nordisk Kulturpolitisk Tidsskrift er et fagfellevurdert tidsskrift. Det publiserer forskning som bidrar til å utvikle kunnskapen om nordisk kulturpolitikk eller forskning som er relevant for nordisk kulturpolitikk.
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Tidsskriftet finansieres av et konsortium bestående av flere nordiske akademiske institusjoner:
Institut for Kommunikation, Københavns Universitet
Copenhagen Business School, København
Institut for Kommunikation og Kultur, Aarhus Universitet
Det kulturpolitiska forskningscentret Cupore, Helsinki
University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä
Universitetet i Sørøst-Norge
BI Norwegian Business School, Oslo
Bibliotekshögskolan, Högskolan i Borås
Trine Bille, professor, Copenhagen Business School
Louise Ejgod Hansen, lektor, Aarhus Universitet
Nanna Kann-Rasmussen, lektor, Københavns Universitet
Bjarki Valtysson, lektor, Københavns Universitet
Miikka Pyykkönen, professor, University of Jyväskylä
Sakarias Sokka, Senior Researcher, CUPORE, Helsinki
Tobias Harding, professor, Universitetet i Sørøst-Norge (USN)
Ole Marius Hylland, seniorforsker, Telemarksforskning
Ann-Sofie Köping, lektor, Södertörns högskola
Linnéa Lindsköld, lektor, Bibliotekshögskolan, Högskolan i Borås
Ansvarlig redaktør Louise Ejgod Hansen
Design og sats: Tekstflyt AS
Design omslag: Lilo Design
Forsidebilde: Koncert på det regionale spillested Radar, Aarhus med bandet Athlectic Progression
Foto: Tue Salberg-Bak/Radar
ISSN online: 2000-8325
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