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Åpen tilgang
It’s all about policy
Introduction to issue 1/2018
(side 3-4)
av Sakarias Sokka
Åpen tilgang
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 5-24)
av Tobias Harding

Religious buildings in self-identified secular states are often treated as heritage objects within the context of a narrative of secularization, a narrative in which religion becomes a part of the past. In this paper, the values ascribed by Swedish government policies 1920–2013 to Church of Sweden's church buildings as built heritage are described and analyzed in terms of heritagization and secularization; as identity values, aesthetic values, historical values, and spiritual values. All churches constructed in Sweden before the beginning of 1940 are now protected by law. Churches constructed later have no such automatic protection. In legitimizing this protection, the state has referred primarily to historical values, but often understood these within the context of a wider cultural policy aiming to create good living spaces for the people, anchoring their daily life in local identity and history. Even after the separation of Church and state, the churches play a central role in the heritage preserved by this policy.

Åpen tilgang
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 25-47)
av Ann Christin E. Nilsen & Ole Marius Hylland

Norwegian cultural policy is characterized by an ideology of democratization, which has prompted an alliance between the culture and education sectors, aiming to render arts and culture available to every child. The concept of Bildung is prominent in that respect, harbouring a potential in explaining the discourse behind much educational and cultural policy. Three educational schemes that together make up the Norwegian arts education model are described and analysed in a Bildung perspective: The music subject in the core curriculum, the culture schools, and the arts in school program, the Cultural Rucksack (DKS). There is a duality inherent in the Bildung concept, as it is used to describe both the individual process of self-cultivation; an individual journey, as well as the cultural content that is regarded necessary to fulfil this process. Using this duality as an analytical perspective, the article shows that the arts education model is characterized by both sides of the Bildung concept, in addition to a critical perspective evident in the use of the concept – the anti-instrumentalist perspective.

Åpen tilgang
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 48-72)
av Sofie Rosengaard & Trine Øland

This article examines the appearance of three canons in Denmark in 2006 to 2008 as an example of cultural policy: a canon on culture, a canon on history and a canon on democracy. Using a concept of symbolic power and symbolic boundary work related to political power, the political arguments for the canons and the public debate about the canons are investigated. First, it is shown that the political arguments produce an image of cultural ‘roots’ and native Danes versus non-native Danes, promoting a national and integrationistic figure of thought that mobilises symbolic resources of descent and kinship in the management of the population as a resource. Second, and most importantly, the article focuses on how intellectuals partaking in the public debate about the canons both enforce and refute the political integrationist arguments and how the arguments are often stated with ambiguity. Within this background, the article seeks to understand the symbolic boundary work of the Danish state and the categories, metaphors and idealisations it uses to demarcate the Danish population. Not least, the article seeks to understand the role intellectuals play in this context.

Åpen tilgang
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 73-93)
av Erling Bjurström

Although aesthetics, primarily in the shape of the arts, can be seen as the raison d’etre of cultural policy, it is seldom in the forefront of cultural policy research. This article focuses on the aesthetics of Concerts Sweden, which was founded in 1968 and closed down in 2010. With the aim to give high quality music to all citizens around the country and its concentration on mobile concerts and the production of records, Concerts Sweden initially rested on a Bildung aesthetics thoroughly elaborated in the white papers underlying its foundation. This Bildung aesthetics was based on classical views on Bildung and the emergence of modern theories of aesthetics, from the late eighteenth century by foremost Immanuel Kant and Friedrich Schiller. Kant changed the way of looking at aesthetics, but in the 20th century his view on the a priori based universal character of aesthetical judgment lost its prior credibility. This is also reflected in the restricted aesthetic claims of most national cultural policies during the century, and in the history of Concerts Sweden (Svenska Rikskonserter), which musical-aesthetic platform changed when the aim to “counteract the negative effects of commercialism” was introduced as one of the goals of the new Swedish national cultural policy in 1974. With the support of this goal Concerts Sweden drifted away from the Bildung aesthetics prescribed for it in the white papers when it was founded, but without explicitly abandoning it. The history of Concerts Sweden shows that aesthetics had a stronger position in Swedish cultural policy prior to its reorganization in the 1970s, when it became more subordinated to political viewpoints. From this point of view, the Swedish cultural policy of music successively takes on a post-aesthetic character from the 1970s, in the sense that it no longer takes principle stands in matters of aesthetics, except in pragmatic ways, as when it for example comes to the assignment of subsidies based on judgments of aesthetical values or qualities.

Åpen tilgang
Frå kulturell velferdspolitikk til revisjon og kontroll
Historisk bakgrunn for Europarådets evaluering av nasjonal kulturpolitikk i 1980-åra med Sverige som eksempel
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 94-120)
av Geir Vestheim
SammendragEngelsk sammendrag

Artikkelen handlar om bakgrunnen for at Europarådet i 1985 etablerte eit program for evaluering av medlemsstatane sin kulturpolitikk. Eit utgangspunkt er at det skjedde ei ideologisk vending i nyliberal retning i den vestlege og europeiske kulturpolitikken i 1980-åra. Men den historiske bakgrunnen for programmet var den politikkutviklinga som skjedde i regi av Unesco i løpet av 1960- og 1970-åra. To sentrale aktørar i Unescos utvikling av ein kulturpolitisk strategi var embetsmennene Augustin Girard, leiaren for utviklingsavdelinga i det franske kulturdepartementet og Carl-Johan Kleberg, byråsjef i Statens kulturråd i Sverige. Den første delen av artikkelen viser korleis dei samarbeidde frå slutten av 1960-talet og gjennom 1980-åra, først i Unesco og seinare i Europarådet. Den andre delen av artikkelen er ein empirisk analyse av Europarådet si evaluering av svensk kulturpolitikk i 1990. Sverige var det andre landet som let seg evaluere, etter Frankrike, som vart evaluert i 1988. I den tredje og siste delen av artikkelen blir Europarådets evalueringsprogram sett inn i ein større politisk samanheng, og konklusjonen er at det ikkje var tilfeldig at dette programmet kom til i 1980-åra: Dette var tiåret for ei ideologisk forskyving i kulturpolitikken – som på mange andre politikkområde – der nyliberale idear og krav om nye legitimeringsargument dukka opp i kulturpolitikken, blant andre krava om økonomisk effektivitet, nye leiarskapsprinsipp, standardisering, mindre stat og meir private initiativ. Dei politiske argumenta frå 1970-åra følgde nok med, men var ikkje lenger tilstrekkelege.

This article is a study of the background and context of the evaluation programme of cultural policies of member states that the Council of Europe launched in 1985. One point of departure is that in the 1980s there was an ideological move in Western and European cultural policies in neoliberal direction, but the historical background goes back to the policy development that took place within the frames of Unesco in the 1960s and the 1970s. Two important agents in the formation of Unesco’s cultural policy strategy were the high rank civil servants Augustin Girard, head of the development and research unit of the French Ministry of Culture, and Carl-Johan Kleberg, director of research and development activities of the Swedish Arts Council. The first part of the article shows how they co-operated from the late 1960s on and into the 1980s, first within a Unesco context and later within the Council of Europe. The second part of the article is an empirical analysis of the Council of Europe’s evaluation of Swedish cultural policies in 1990. Sweden was the second country that was evaluated by European experts, only preceded by France, which was evaluated in 1988. In the third and last part of the article the European evaluation programme is analyzed and discussed in a wider political context, and the conclusion is that it was no accident that the programme came into being in the 1980s: This was the decade when ideological positions in cultural policies – as in other policy areas – were on the move. Neoliberal ideas and new legitimation arguments became visible in cultural policy discourse, for example the need for economic efficiency, new leadership and management principles, standardization, less state and more private initiatives. Many political arguments from the 1970s were still valid but they were no longer considered to be sufficient.

Åpen tilgang
Hvornår er man forfatter?
Om afgrænsning af og levevilkår for danske forfattere og oversættere
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 121-146)
av Trine Bille & Cecilie Bryld Fjællegaard
SammendragEngelsk sammendrag

Fra et kulturpolitisk synspunkt, fx i forhold til social sikring og uddeling af legater og anden kunststøtte, spørges det ofte om hvor stor gruppen af kunstnere er, hvor meget de tjener, og hvem den består af. I denne artikel belyses danske forfatteres og oversætteres levevilkår i forhold til disse tre overordnede spørgsmål. Analysen bygger på en aktuel og omfattende spørgeskemaundersøgelse til 3.728 danske forfattere og oversættere. Med udgangspunkt i otte forskellige kriterier for at definere en kunstnergruppe, viser artiklen, hvordan valget af kriterier vil have helt afgørende betydning for de konklusioner, der drages, både i forhold til hvor stor gruppen af forfattere og oversættere er, hvem den består af, og hvor meget de tjener. Hvor den hidtidige forskning vedr. kunstners levevilkår kun anvender én bestemt, og ofte temmelig bred, definition af en kunstnergruppe, bidrager denne artikel til litteraturen ved at vise, hvordan forskellige afgrænsninger af en kunstnergruppe har afgørende betydning for en undersøgelses resultater.

From a cultural policy perspective, for example in terms of social security and the distribution of grant and other kinds of public support, it seems important to know how big the group of artists is, how much they earn, and who it consists of. In this article, these three general questions will be discussed based on an analysis of the Danish authors and translators living conditions. The analysis is based on a current and comprehensive questionnaire survey to 3,728 Danish authors and translators. Based on eight different criteria for defining a group of artists, the article shows how the choice of criteria will be of vital importance to the conclusions drawn, both in relation to the size of the group of authors and translators, who it consists of, and how much they earn. Where previous research concerning artist's living conditions apply only one, and often quite wide, definition of the group of artists, this article contributes to the literature by showing how different criteria for defining the group of artists, are crucial to the results of the research.

Åpen tilgang
(side 147-150)
av Håkon Larsen

In this article, Larsen argues that social scientists seeking to understand elite culture need to move beyond simply investigating the correlations between social status and cultural consumption. Instead, one must seek to understand why specific forms of expressive culture is perceived as particularly meaningful by high status groups, irrespective of the social benefits such knowledge may or may not provide in society. Only by taking elite culture seriously as a culture in itself, will social scientists be able to understand the meanings of elite culture.

1-2018, vol 21


Nordisk Kulturpolitisk Tidsskrift er et fagfellevurdert tidsskrift. Det publiserer forskning som bidrar til å utvikle kunnskapen om nordisk kulturpolitikk eller forskning som er relevant for nordisk kulturpolitikk.

Nordisk Kulturpolitisk Tidsskrift er gratis og tilgjengelig for alle. Artiklene må gjerne deles digitalt. Da må det lenkes direkte til artikkelen i Idunn og det må tydelig fremgå hvem som har skrevet artikkelen.

Følg tidsskriftet på Facebook (søk på Nordisk kulturpolitisk tidsskrift) og Twitter @NKT_Journal

Ansvarlig utgiver

Centrum för kulturpolitisk forskning ved Högskolan i Borås


Specialforskare Sakarias Sokka, Det kulturpolitiska forskningscentret Cupore


Tidsskriftet finansieres av et konsortium bestående av flere nordiske akademiske institusjoner:

– Det Informationsvidenskabelige Akademi, Københavns Universitet

– Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen

– Institut for Kommunikation og Kultur, Aarhus Universitet

– Cupore, Helsinki

– University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä

– Universitetet i Sørøst-Norge, Bø

– Telemarksforsking, Bø

– BI Norwegian Business School, Oslo

– Bibliotekshögskolan, Högskolan i Borås



Trine Bille, FD, lektor, Copenhagen Business School

Louise Ejgod Hansen, FD, Aarhus Universitet


Bjarki Valtysson, lektor, Københavns Universitet


Miikka Pyykkönen, professor, University of Jyväskylä


Tobias Harding, professor, Universitetet i Sørøst-Norge (HSN)

Ole Marius Hylland, forsker, Telemarksforsk-ning


Ann-Sofie Köping, lektor, Södertörns högskola

Linnéa Lindsköld, Föreståndare Centrum för kulturpolitisk forskning, Högskolan i Borås


Ansvarlig redaktør Sakarias Sokka

E-post: sakarias.sokka@cupore.fi

Tlf: 00358 50 387 2728

Redaksjonssekretær Anna Kanerva

E-post: anna.kanerva@cupore.fi

Tlf: 00358 50 302 1414

Design og sats: Laboremus Sandefjord AS

Design omslag: Lilo Design

Forsidebilde: Royal Opera in Stockholm and the Church of St. Jacob. This is a heritage protected church, originally built for a local parish in Stockholm, but now mostly used for cultural events, partially because the former parish in the middle of central Stockholm has almost no inhabitants. Foto: Tobias Harding

ISSN online: 2000-8325

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