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Commentary
Åpen tilgang
(side 8-11)
av Tobias Harding
Engelsk sammendrag

This article is a short reflection on the general state of the field of cultural policy research in the Nordic countries. It is written primarily on the basis of the Nordic Conferences on Cultural Policy Research, especially the latest conference, which was held in Helsinki on August 2017, and thematically focused on “Migration, Culture, and Nation”. Over the last 20 years, cultural policy research in the Nordic countries has matured into a more diverse research field, integrating perspectives from several other fields and disciplines. Cultural policy now appears to be in a state of change. This is a time of increasing migration, globalization, economization, and cultural change. These are changes with which cultural policy research can only keep up with and understand if it continues to develop, integrating new perspectives, while at the same time finding new ways to use the experience we have already gained in studying the interface between the cultural sector and politics.

Åpen tilgang
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 13-28)
av Linda Portnoff
Engelsk sammendrag

In many ways, the copyright based music industry has always been an immaterial economy. At the same time, the music industry of toady is a clear example of how globalization and digitalization have affected music creation as well as music listening. New business models evolve around immaterial values, and with that comes an increased urge to be able to measure and evaluate economic effects of these developments.

This article begins by discussing ”the state of the art” of cultural statistics. Delimited to an expanding part of the creative sector, namely the Nordic music industries, the article goes on to describe a model for the Nordic music industry’s revenue as well as the results from the measurements with focus on the last years, including more broken-down levels such as certain sub sectors and export segments.

The paper further examines more closely the aims behind two statistics initiatives from Sweden and Norway, and analyzes the outcomes in terms of both merits and limitations and concludes with some reflections on political implications and the way forward for the development of cultural statistics.

Åpen tilgang
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 29-50)
av Mari Torvik Heian og Johs. Hjellbrekke
Engelsk sammendrag

In this article, the aim is to explore Norwegian artists' attitudes towards their income- and working situation by using multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and cluster analysis (AHC). Our main question is: To what extent are Norwegian artists' attitudes marked by a dichotomy between artistic and economic value? The MCA shows that there are distinct oppositions present in what we call the room of artists' attitudes: First, we find a systematic opposition between consistently positive and negative attitudes towards the artists’ own financial situation. We also find an opposition that separates dedicated and/or recognized artists from less dedicated and/or recognized artists. These findings are largely in line with earlier studies of artists’ work- and income situation saying that relatively few artists have artistic and/or financial success and a big share are struggling to maintain income and artistic recognition. However, the results from the hierarchical cluster analysis can nuance this picture. We find three different segments of artists, where about ¼ of the artists have positive attitudes, and a little less than ¼ have negative attitudes towards their own financial situation, while more than 50 % of the artists are characterized by neutral attitudes towards both artistic recognition and their own financial situation. In other words, our analysis reveals a pattern of oppositions between positive and negative attitudes towards both economy, dedication and recognition. At the same time, the identification of the large group of artists with “neutral” attitudes contribute to nuance the image of artists as either financially successful and commercially oriented or poor and sacrificing. We therefore argue that our findings is a supplement to previous studies and contribute to a more nuanced knowledge of current artistic roles.

Åpen tilgang
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 51-70)
av Erik Henningsen og Roger Blomgren
SammendragEngelsk sammendrag

I denne artikkelen diskuterer vi rollen organisasjonsreformer har i den nordiske kulturpolitikken på bakgrunn av en case studie av Kultursamverkansmodellen, som ble implementert i Sverige i 2011. Gjennom flere tiår har organisasjonsendring vært et foretrukket redskap for å oppfylle overordnede målsettinger i kulturpolitikken, slik som målet om universell tilgang til kunst og kultur. Organisasjonsreformene har imidlertid sjelden ledet til noen større endringer av dette slaget og framstår snarere som «organisering for organiseringens skyld». Som vi viser i artikkelen, illustrerer kultursamverkansmodellen denne tendensen. Hvordan kan denne tendensen forklares og hvilke bredere lærdommer om mekanismene som former kulturpolitikken kan avledes fra eksempelet kultursamverkansmodellen? Inspirert av perspektivet til den kritiske realismen, formulerer vi seks hypoteser som kan gi svar på disse spørsmålene. Den første hypotesen er at organisasjonsreformer har blitt et substitutt for økonomiske ressurser. En annen er at kulturpolitiske mål i første rekke tilskrives en symbolsk verdi. Vår tredje hypotese er at kulturpolitikken preges av en konsensusorientering som forhindrer reelle endringer. Den fjerde hypotesen er at kulturpolitikken preges av segmenterte strukturer, som også motvirker reelle endringer. En femte hypotese er at kulturpolitikk tar form av anerkjennelsespolitikk og at kravene om at staten skal tilkjenne ulike aktører oppmerksomhet blir viktigere enn andre mål. Den siste hypotesen er at kulturpolitikken er et politikkområde som i liten grad er gjenstand for velgerkontroll.

Nøkkelord: Kulturpolitikk, samverkansmodellen, organisasjonsreformer, kulturpolitikkens mekanismer

In this article, we discuss the role of organisational reforms in Nordic cultural policy, based on a case study of the cultural cooperation model (kultursamverkansmodellen) that was implemented in Sweden in 2011. For decades, Nordic countries have opted for organisational change as a means of fulfilling principal cultural policy objectives, such as the goal of providing universal access to art and culture. However, organisational reforms have rarely led to decisive changes of such a kind and appear rather as «organising for the sake of organising». As shown in the article, the cultural cooperation model provides an ample illustration of this tendency. How can this tendency be explained and what broader lessons about mechanisms that shape cultural policy in the Nordic countries can be derived from the case of the cultural cooperation model? Inspired by the perspective of critical realism, the article formulates six hypotheses that can answer these questions. The first is that organisational reforms have come to function as a substitute for the provision of economic recourses by the government. A second hypothesis is that cultural policy objectives tend to be ascribed a symbolic value rather than to be seen as dictates for action. Our third hypothesis is that cultural policy takes place within a consensus framework that prevents substantial changes to policy. The fourth hypothesis is that cultural policy is characterized by segmented institutional structures that work against substantial changes to policy. The fifth hypothesis is that that cultural policy takes the form of a politics of recognition and that various actors’ demand for attention by the state takes precedence over other aims. The last hypothesis is that cultural policy to a low degree is subject to voter control.

Åpen tilgang
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 71-89)
av Per Mangset, Lars Håkonsen og Heidi Stavrum
Engelsk sammendrag

This paper focuses upon «festivalisation» of culture in Norway. Both available research and cultural policy documents claim that it has been a spectacular increase of people’s participation at festivals during the last years. Researchers and cultural policy experts have interpreted this alleged “festival boom” as an expression of a profound structural transformation of people’s cultural activity patterns, i. e., from “institutions to events” (Henningsen et. al. 2015, NOU 2013:4). They have also asserted that such festivalisation, in particular, has taken place at the local level, and that municipalities have spent an increasing proportion of their cultural budgets on local festivals. We have studied these two questions using available statistical data from several sources. Our two main conclusions are: 1) Researchers and cultural policy experts have both overestimated the “festivalisation boom”, and 2) the assertion of increased municipal spending on festivals is misleading.

Åpen tilgang
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 90-108)
av Ine Fintland, Synnøve Østebø og Geir Sverre Braut
SammendragEngelsk sammendrag

Artikkelen presenterer erfaringene fra en serie tilsyn med kommunale arkiver gjennomført av det statlige Arkivverket med hjemmel i arkivlovens bestemmelser. Tilsynet ble utført som en tilpasset systemrevisjon i 18 kommuner. Med grunnlag i foreliggende og etterspurte opplysninger fra den enkelte kommunen, ble det i forkant av selve tilsynsbesøket sendt en skisse til tilsynsrapport til kommunen. Denne ble brukt som grunnlag for ytterligere innsamling av informasjon og diskusjon under selve tilsynsbesøket. Etter tilsynsbesøket ble det utarbeidet foreløpig rapport, som kommunene fikk anledning til å kommentere. Ved ferdigstillingen av den endelige rapporten, ble det også lagt til et kapittel med skriftlig tilbakemelding fra kommunene om erfaringer med det gjennomførte tilsynet. Kommunene gir i det alt vesentlige positive tilbakemeldinger. Ut fra en analyse av tilbakemeldingene, er det grunnlag for å si at tilsynet støttet opp om kommunens egne behov. Det stimulerte til faglig refleksjon og ga bedre forankring av arkivet i organisasjonen. Deltakerne oppfattet tilsynet som dialogbasert. Tilsyn medfører utvilsomt merarbeid for kommunene. Ut fra sosiokulturelle læringsteorier er det grunnlag for å anta at den økte involveringen før og under tilsynet som det ble lagt opp til her, kan gi økt læringseffekt av tilsynet. Ved god planlegging trenger ikke den økte involveringen komme i konflikt med tilsynets mulighet til å ivareta sine kontrolloppgaver. Ressursbruken fra tilsynets side var moderat.

Nøkkelord: Statlig tilsyn, kommunale arkiver, dialogbasert tilsyn

The article presents experiences from a series of audits of municipal archives performed by the Norwegian governmental archival authorities on basis of the requirements in the act relating to archives. The audits were designed as adjusted system audits in 18 municipalities. On basis of current and collected information from each municipality a draft report was submitted to the municipality in advance of the audit visit. This draft was used as basis for further collection of information and discussions during the audit visit. After the visit a preliminary report was elaborated and forwarded to the municipality for comments. When finalising the report, a chapter containing written feedback from the municipality on their experiences from the audit was added. All over the municipalities present positive feedback. By analysing the written material it is possible to claim that the audits supported the needs experienced by the municipalities themselves. It stimulated the professional reflections and gave the archives a better foundation in the organisation. The participants experienced the audits as based upon dialogue. Without doubt the audits entailed additional work for the municipalities. Based on sociocultural theories on learning, it is reason to believe that the increased involvement of the participants before and during the audits also may increase the learning effects from the audits. When based upon thorough planning the increased involvement does not imply any conflict with the authority’s controlling tasks. The use of resources from the authority was moderate.

Åpen tilgang
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 109-131)
av Nanna Løkka
SammendragEngelsk sammendrag

I denne artikkelen ser jeg nærmere på hvordan vikingtiden formidles på norske museer. I Norge har vikingtiden tradisjonelt blitt forvaltet og formidlet av universitetsmuseene, men de siste 20 årene har disse fått selskap av regionale formidlingssentre. Disse kommuniserer vikingtiden ved hjelp av andre midler enn universitetsmuseene. Der universitetsmuseene først og fremst formidler vikingtiden ved hjelp av historiske gjenstander, bruker de nye formidlingssentrene primært rekonstruksjoner og deltakelse i ulike aktiviteter. I denne artikkelen gjør jeg rede for hvilke metoder de nye formidlingssentrene bruker for å formidle vikingtiden og diskuterer dette todelte museumslandskapet i relasjon til kulturarvspolitikken. Hovedkonklusjonen er at disse to museumstypene svarer på ulike politikker, og at de komplementerer hverandre.

Nøkkelord: Museumspolitikk, kulturminnepolitikk, kulturarvspolitikk, vikingtid

In this article, I examine how Norwegian museums communicate knowledge of the Viking period in different ways. Within Norway, the Viking age has traditionally been managed by museums belonging to the country’s universities. During the last two decades, however, several regional Viking centres have been established, undermining the universities’ former hegemony. The means adopted by these new centres to convey knowledge about the Viking age differ from those of the more traditional museums. Whereas the more traditional museums communicate knowledge about the Viking age primarily through the use of displayed historical artefacts, the new Viking centres rely primarily on reconstructions and activities. In this article, I describe the methods used by the new Viking centres to communicate knowledge about the Vikings, and discuss Norway’s twofold museum landscape in relation to the country’s heritage policy. The article’s main conclusion is that the two types of museums work in a very complementary fashion.

  • ISSN Online: 2000-8325
  • ISSN Print:
  • DOI: https://doi.org/
  • Utgiver: Universitetsforlaget
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