Cultural planning has in recent years gained influence as a tool for strategic planning. This is seen especially in accordance with the turn toward «the creative city» and arts-based urban regeneration. Cultural planning as central component in growth focused urban development is increasingly criticized and this article chisels out and expands the critique. It builds on a specific strand of cultural planning research, namely what Greg Young coins as «culturized» planning. A strand that’s intrinsically territorial in its focus, aimed at cross cutting administrative sectors and broadly concerned with the mobilization of cultural resources and cultural institutions. The article adds to the growing literature on cultural planning by aligning it with recent research on social innovation and integrated area development. The empirical vantage point is an analysis of a concrete development project in disintegrated urban areas in Denmark – namely the formation of library based community centers. The analysis discusses the actual work done in the community centers during the time of the projects. The article concludes by stating, that culturized planning holds the potential to develop disadvantaged urban areas as well as cultural institutions.
Nøgleord: kulturplanlægning, kulturiseret planlægning, social innovation, udsatte boligområder, biblioteker, medborgercentre
This article scrutinises the dominant discourses detected in the cultural policies of the Nordic capitals and looks into how these fit general understandings of the Nordic cultural model. The article applies critical discourse analysis to a variety of policy documents that describe the cultural policies of the Nordic capitals and leans towards theoretical frameworks of Nordic cultural policy and city cultural policy. Findings indicate that even though the cities’ cultural policies are inspired by discourses resembling narratives supported by the creative industries, cool capitalism, and economic instrumentalisation, these are not at the forefront of their policies. To the contrary, egalitarian aims, access, and participation are high on the agenda for all of the Nordic capitals where emphasis is on openness, access, inclusion, participation, and local cultural contexts rather than artistic excellence or economic incentives.
The article shows how Danish leaders of cultural institutions describe their organizational environment and their work to legitimize their institutions. Theoretically the study uses an institutional perspective combined with cultural sociology. The article shows how the cultural leaders describe their environment through three groups of actors: users, partners and policy makers. Users are important as a legitimization cause but also act as a creative partner that provide necessary inputs to the programme and activities in the cultural institution. Cultural leaders and policy makers relate to each other in various constellations. Furthermore the article shows that legitimization work of cultural institutions is a balance between three different logics. Cultural institutions are perceived as legitimate on the grounds of institutionalized notions of many users (quantity), artistic or professional quality and societal relevance. Social relevance can hold two different meanings. Firstly cultural institutions are relevant because they contribute to the education or «Bildung» of the citizens. Secondly the cultural institutions seek legitimacy on the grounds of a more instrumental dimension. Both types of societal relevance require cultural institutions to «open up» to society. The analysis of the organizational environment and legitimization work concludes with a discussion of the necessary competencies for cultural managers today. The article points out navigation and reflexivity as important skills for cultural leaders.
Nøgleord: Kulturledelse, Kulturledere, Samfundsrelevans, Legitimitet, Omverden, Kompetencer
Keywords: Cultural leadership, Cultural management, Societal relevance, Legitimacy, Institutional environments, Competencies
The article explores the possibility of understanding music as a contribution to the forming of cultural trauma. The case being explored is the Pulitzer Prize and Grammy winning piece of music On the Transmigration of Souls written by the American composer John Coolidge Adams. The piece concerns Adams’s response to September 11: a spiritual journey of musical meaning making integrating prerecorded street sounds with two choruses, large orchestra, and the reading of, among other things, the names of victims. For Adams the artist is someone who uses the possibility of being an autonomous creator of art, and, at the same time, takes on the role of the craftsman and servant for the sake of the spirit of listeners in an art world and wider society. While doing that the artist redefines the artistic expressions in a rich dialogue with the past and challenges current times. In dialogue with the cultural trauma theory in cultural sociology, and with political theorist Michael Walzer’s understanding of social criticism, the article tries to tease out an understanding of how music as a historically embedded cognitive, moral, and aesthetic expression could be part of an emerging cultural trauma within the American society. Hence, how music, as art with relevance to life as it is lived and experienced in time and place, generates capacities for feelings for suffering others, social criticism, and democratic integration. In doing that the article also enlarges the understanding of how cultural trauma enacted by art might emerge as a composing of an American cultural trauma.
Den nationale kampagne Danmark læser blev afviklet i perioden 2013–15, og var et markant kulturpolitisk initiativ – det hidtil største af sin art i Danmark – med det formål at få flere danskere til at læse skønlitteratur. Artiklen beskriver kampagnens formål og indhold og analyserer dens placering mellem etableret dannelsestænkning og nutidig eventkultur samt relationer til andre kultur-/litteraturpolitisk aktuelle dagsordner: bogmarked, læsekompetencer, folkebiblioteker, formidlingstænkning, partnerskabspraksis, by-branding, ligesom spørgsmål omkring social identitet og kategoriseringsprocesser tages op. Til grund for artiklen ligger dels et stort dokumentationsmateriale fra kampagnens aktører, dels et antropologisk følgeforskningsprojekt. Dertil diskuterer artiklen med og perspektiverer til en del af den nuværende skandinaviske forskning omkring bøger, litteratur, læsning og litteraturformidling. Kampagnen var karakteriseret ved en stor geografisk og social bredde, som både fastholdt danske folkebiblioteker som centrale aktører og fremviste mange nyskabende samarbejder og udadrettede formidlingsmæssige tiltag, blandt andet med en større tekstlig mangfoldighed end den traditionelle trykte bog. Kampagnen var dog præget af forskydninger undervejs, idet den bevægede sig fra et fokus på litteraturens dannelsespotentiale til en pragmatisk betoning af oplevelse og events. Afslutningsvis sætter artiklen spørgsmålstegn ved, om en dannelsesorienteret kampagne giver mening i dagens Danmark.
Emneord: læsning, litteraturformidling, eventkultur, kulturpolitik, identitet, kampagne
The national campaign Denmark is reading (Danmark læser) was implemented in the years of 2013–15 and was a significant cultural policy initiative – the biggest of its kind ever in Denmark – with the object of getting more Danes to read fiction. This article describes the aim and contents of the campaign and analyzes its position at the interface between established educational thinking and contemporary event culture, as well as considering its relations to other current agendas in the politics of culture and literature: the book market, literacy, public libraries, the concept of dissemination, partnership practice and city branding. Issues of social identity and categorising are also discussed. The article is based on a strong foundation of documents produced by the players involved in the campaign, and on an anthropological follow-up research project. The article also discusses and puts into perspective sections of contemporary research works about books, literature, reading and dissemination of literature. The campaign was characterised by its broad social and geographical scope, which both retained Danish public libraries as central players and involved a great number of innovative partnerships and dissemination activities, including a greater variety of texts than those available in traditionally printed books. However, the campaign was affected by changes in focus along the way, moving from a focus on the general educational potential of literature to a pragmatic emphasis on experience and events. Finally, the article calls into question whether a general educational campaign makes sense in Denmark today.
The article presents findings from a new mapping of the creative industries in Norway 2008–2014. It reviews previous mappings of the creative industries and discusses questions related to construction of the creative industries population and its economic measurement. Reported results include value added and employment for the whole sector and for the selected industries music, books, education and teaching, as well as the differences between the creative industries and the mainland economy in Norway. Main findings include positive development of value added and employment for the whole sector throughout the period 2008–2014, but not as strong growth in value added as in the mainland economy. Additionally, the authors perceive and discuss such mapping’s consequences, and impact on, the cultural policydiscourse.