Culture is a central concept for the Scandinavian radical right parties, but little research has been done on the cultural policy of these parties. This article is a comparative overview of the party programs of three Scandinavian radical right parties published during the latest decade. It relates the cultural policies of the radical right to the predominantly welfare-based corporatist cultural policy of the Scandinavian countries. Through a discursive policy analysis two problem representations have been identified: The view of multiculturalism as a threat to national culture and the view that public funding is a threat to freedom. The parties share a common understanding of cultural policy, with minor differences. There is an underlying conflict in the discourse: While the parties argue that the political governance of art needs to be limited, they are, at the same time, deeply involved in how cultural expressions and cultural life should be defined. By shedding light on the radical right cultural policy agenda it may be possible to politicize the cultural policy discourse overall and acknowledge the ideological dimension of cultural policy.
What changes occurred in Norwegian national cultural policy in the period when the center-left government carried out its Culture initiative program and what can this tell us about patterns of development in this field of public policy? In this article I analyze developments in Norwegian cultural policy at the national level in the years 2005 to 2013, with respect to the sectorial delineation of cultural policy, its rationales and its organization. The growth in the states budgetary expenditure on the cultural sector in this period could have allowed for significant changes in cultural policy along these three dimensions. However, the conclusion that can be drawn from my review of developments in cultural policy in this period is that cultural policy in Norway evolves in a sedimentary fashion, through the gradual addition of new layers to the established arrangements, rather than through changes in the makeup of the sector.
Hvilke endringer gjennomgikk den statlige kulturpolitikken i Norge i årene hvor den rødgrønne regjeringen gjennomførte det kulturpolitiske programmet Kulturløftet og hva forteller denne perioden oss om kulturpolitikkens virkemåte og utviklingsmønster? I denne artikkelen analyserer jeg utviklingen i den norske kulturpolitikken i årene 2005 til 2013 med henblikk på dens avgrensning, begrunnelser og organisering. Økningen i de statlige kulturbudsjettene i Kulturløft-perioden kunne gitt grunnlag for endringer i kulturpolitikken langs disse tre dimensjonene. Lærdommen man kan trekke av denne gjennomgangen er imidlertid at kulturpolitikken i Norge utvikler seg sedimentært, gjennom tilføyelsen av nye lag til det bestående, snarere enn gjennom endringer i etablerte ordninger.
Nøkkelord: Korporatisme, armlengde, kulturråd, svensk kulturpolitikk, nordisk kulturpolitikk
This paper discusses the corporatist aspects of Nordic cultural policy, with a specific focus upon artist policy. The principal topic of the paper is corporatism in Swedish cultural (artist) policy during a specific historical period, i.e. from the 1960s to the early 1990s. It focuses upon (1) the close relation between KLYS (the Swedish Joint Committee for Artistic and Literary Professionals) and the ministry responsible for cultural affairs during this period and upon (2) the corporatist relation between the artist organizations and the Swedish Arts Grants Committee («Konstnärsnämnden») until the early 1990s. The paper considers «corporatism» and «arm’s length» as more or less opposites in cultural policy. The paper also compares the corporative aspects of Swedish cultural (artist) policy to similar aspects of the cultural policies of other Nordic countries – Norwegian cultural policy in particular. The paper concludes that corporatism in this policy field was particularly strong in Sweden from the 1960s to the early 1990s, but that it then quite abruptly declined. Cultural policy corporatism seems to have been somewhat weaker in Norway than in Sweden during this period, but more persistent afterwards. The corporatist relation between artist organizations and the Government Grants and Guaranteed Income for Artists («Statens kunstnerstipend») in Norway has subsisted up to these days. The empirical basis of the study is qualitative interviews with key persons in Swedish cultural policy and artist organizations (1994–95) combined with substantial documentary material and research publications.
The peculiarities of cultural policy as a policy sector give rise to many difficulties for policy-makers – particularly the creation of poorly-defined and confused policies – stemming from the essentially-contested nature of the core concept with which it is dealing. This is identified as a problem of policy ambiguity, with ambiguity being endemic to the sector. This ambiguity is expressed in multiple ways in terms of policy contents, expectations, outputs, outcomes and mechanisms, and these serve to make the sector a subject of political disagreements, policy inconsistencies and evaluation confusion. Differences between ambiguity as a deliberate choice for policy participants, and as a consequential effect of the structural characteristics of the policy sector are identified. The results of these in terms of the policy forms that are generated for the cultural sector, and the creation of dissent about these – and about the legitimacy and rationality of cultural policies – are identified, as are the results of ambiguity in terms of expectations, contestation, clarity, implementation effectiveness and the control of policy.
User Participation and Quality in Cultural Policy
The ongoing debate on quality will always be a pivotal point for cultural policy legitimacy in democratic societies. Regardless the aim of the policy, questions related to quality will arise: What is an appropriate concept of quality for public funded art and culture? And why should we use the taxpayers´ money for this area? It is a hallmark of the quality debate that it is actualized when we can observe changes in the cultural policy field. Thus, in the wake of discussions about cultural democracy or the economic potential of art and culture the question of quality becomes more present. Today, user participation or user involvement has become a new trend in cultural policy. Young people are invited to be co-creators of theatrical performances, cultural history museums are asking citizens for help to collect local heritage and libraries allow users to organize events and workshops. Participation is hereby a diverse phenomenon, but all approaches have in common that the cultural institutions more or less are forced to supplement a one-way communication with an increased dialogue with the users. It is the point of departure for this article that the described changes in public funded cultural communication require a renewed debate on quality in cultural policy. The first part of the article is an examination of the concept user participation, while the second part is a discussion of quality in cultural policy in relation to user participation. Here, a central question is whether the quality of user participation in cultural policy can be covered by the already established understandings of quality or if the concept of quality should be redefined when it comes to user participation.
The purpose of this article is to study the working conditions for freelance jazz musicians and freelance journalists in Norway. The study indicates that freelancing entails both good and bad job characteristics. The overall job satisfaction is reasonably high. Furthermore, the freelancers’ turnover intentions in terms of intention to leave the freelance job situation are quite low. The intrinsic motivation is very high and most freelancers perceive self-employment to be a personal choice. They are least satisfied with their wages, even though this does not increase their intentions to quit being freelancers. What may lead to freelancers’ turn-over intentions is a tough labor market, job stress, limited career possibilities and social isolation. Cultural policy implications are discussed in the last section of the article.
This article aims to analyse the advancement of regional film agencies in Norway, with the creation of 11 agencies during the 2000s and 2010s. This regionalisation does not only involve a territorial change in the film production landscape. It is also part of a significant change in film policy and the legitimatization of subsidies, with a new emphasis on economic objectives. This article will discuss the role of both state and local/ regional authorities in this regionalisation, with the main perspective on how funding for the regional agencies have been legitimated.