Artikkelen handler om forholdet mellom kulturpolitikk og ideologi, og særlig om kulturpolitikkens potensielle preg av paternalisme. For å belyse endring og kontinuitet i kulturpolitisk ideologi, trekkes det paralleller til 1800-tallets folkeopplysning. Artikkelen stiller de følgende spørsmålene: Hvilke ideologiske mønstre preger norsk kulturpolitikk? Er dagens kulturpolitikk preget av paternalisme på samme måte som 1800-tallets folkeopplysning var det? For å besvare disse spørsmålene diskuterer artikkelen om en ideologisk analyse av folkeopplysning har overføringsverdi til moderne kulturpolitikk.
Nøkkelord: kulturpolitikk, ideologi, paternalisme, folkeopplysning
This article discusses the relations between cultural policy and ideology, and in particular the eventual paternalism implicit in cultural policy. To shed light on ideological change and continuity, a parallel is drawn to 19th century public enlightenment, folkeopplysning. The following questions are posed: What ideological patterns marks Norwegian cultural policy? Is contemporary cultural policy characterized by paternalism in the same sense as was the case with 19th century folkeopplysning? To answer these questions, the article investigates whether an analysis of the ideology of public enlightenment can inform an analysis of modern cultural policy.
The purpose of the article is to contribute to the research on Swedish social democratic cultural policy in the 1930s in general, and on the career of Minister of Cultural, Educational and Ecclesiastical Affairs, Arthur Engberg (1888–1944), in particular. The methodological approach is a document analysis of a number of his writings and his political speeches, all contextualised to the historical situation in which they were published. The main conclusion is that Arthur Engberg was a spokesman for a liberal - not to say conservative - humanist view on culture and cultural policy. His bourgeois view on culture could be characterized as a political paradox since he represented the Swedish Labour Party - but on the other hand it could also be interpreted as an ideological move to the right by social democrats in Sweden when they conquered a majority of power positions in the Swedish Parliament (Riksdagen) and in the government from 1935 and onwards.
This article presents some early results from an investigation of taste patterns in the expert and commanding elites of the Norwegian cultural field, using data from 1300 hired professionals and board members in 250 institutions in the cultural sector, ranging from the largest governmental institutions to small festivals. Using multiple correspondence analysis on preferences related to 59 artists and artefacts from literature, music, visual art and television, we identify three important axes in their taste orientation: first, an opposition between a conformist versus more oppositional position towards artists with high or medium recognition, mainly linked to age, and a second opposition between those who are more versus less positive to popular and mainstream culture (in particular, television), which corresponds to a symbolic hierarchy opposing various types of cultural administrators to artists, critics, and academics. The final axis opposes older and younger agents in their varying preferences for different generations of artists and cultural artefacts. These taste differences are then explored for links to the respondents´ use of cultural institutions, their position in the cultural field, their social backgrounds and their position-takings in aesthetics and cultural policy, suggesting a clear affiliation between taste patterns and these realms.
The purpose of this article is to describe and analyse the recruitment of actors to (primarily institutional) theatres in Norway. We will investigate and discuss whether a previous description/prediction of a radical break in the recruitment system from predominantly “profession regulation” to more “competition regulation” has proved to be well founded. Some 10-15 years ago several informants and scholars (ourselves included) predicted that a more open, audition based recruitment system to acting positions in Norwegian theatres would take over and that the professional and institutional control with the recruitment process would become much weaker. Today we can evaluate whether these predictions have come true. This paper is therefore also an attempt to re-evaluate our own previous research. The article is based upon qualitative and quantitative data from several research projects. It concludes that the aforementioned description/prediction was oversimplified: No radical break seems to have taken place within the recruitment system.
Planning and evaluation has become increasingly important within the Swedish public library sphere. The aim of this article is to problematize the libraries’ (the Royal Library, the regional libraries and the public libraries) task to evaluate the design and use of ‘library plans’. The task will be described in relation to the development of the Swedish library legislation and the evolution of library plans as an administrative phenomenon. The analytical focus in the article is the concept of use as applied in government practice and library practice. The empirical material consists of documents reflecting the enforcement of use of plans and evaluation of use of plans, and of qualitative interviews with library staff reflecting plans in library practice. The analysis shows how government practice in combination with library practice creates an administrative habit regarding the use, and evaluation of use of plans. Nonetheless the government practice has the first word in deciding which concepts should dominate the library administration. In the concluding discussion we argue the current library administration – and the concepts such as plans, use of plans and plan evaluation, dominating that administration – might be altered if there would be alternatives to the current administrative trends with strong influences from market economy logics.
The author suggests that music harbours a special capacity for its listeners to sympathetically relate to foreign sets of values. Music has the ability to function as a limit-transgressing and unifying link at both a collective and individual level. That music is particularly suited for this has to do with the emotional power of music, the affective impact by which music in its very specific way becomes a felt experience in time. On the one hand listeners may be affectively addressed by (in principle) any music, irrespectively of cultural difference. But above all, music – one’s «own» music – has the possibility to become a confirming self-object, enhancing a self-confidence that enables critical assimilation, rather than authoritarian dismissal. This may thereby facilitate and enable constructive and enriching encounters with others. Listening to and learning about the aesthetic values that define different cultures, styles and genres of music – but also others’ individual preferences and aesthetic appraisals – may thus function as cultivation of social competence in an aesthetic context. However for this sympathetic function of music to come off certain requirements must be met.