The purpose of this article is to examine multiculturalist cultural policies in northern Europe. Almost all societies are multicultural in the sense that they contain two or more languages or religions, and people there live according to many value systems and traditions. Few countries, however, can be labeled as ideologically multiculturalist societies. This multiculturalism implies a positive or at least a neutral government attitude towards cultural diversity, public support for the maintenance of cultural practices and identities, and public efforts to overcome social inequalities based on cultural backgrounds or markers. This article focuses on cultural policy development in Finland, Sweden and the Netherlands. According to the Multiculturalism Policy Index, these countries are, or at least have been, multiculturalist regarding the cultural rights of immigrants and they also share other common features. The main objective is to describe cultural policy evolution in these countries, to search for continuity and change in this development and to trace similarities and differences. Special attention is given to the relation between integration policy and cultural policy, to the incorporation of diversity issues into regular arts policy, and to the implementation of laws and policy objectives. The analysis shows that cultural policy has responded relatively slowly to societal changes caused by immigration. This delay has many reasons but it is obviously difficult to integrate group-specific multiculturalism into a field that has been accustomed to work in terms of universal values, quality-based assessment, individual creativity and national interest. Another finding is the notion that despite numerous efforts to incorporate diversity perspective into mainstream cultural policy, it has actually been much easier to establish special arrangements for immigrant groups and minority communities. Furthermore, the implementation of policy actions shows that activities are often quite modest in relation to formal objectives and the resources available are usually meager.
Centre Pompidou revisited – French arenas for art and culture
In the late 1970’s the author of this article visited Centre Pompidou in Paris, a cultural institution which at the time was the most cutting edge cultural arena in Europe. With its pop-art inspired architecture, use of new media and trendy placement in the old slaughterhouse Les Halles, it was a first-mover within the tendency of regeneration of former industrial areas with culture as a motor. The main question of this article is weather Centre Pompidou today still is a laboratory for artistic and cultural development or if it has become a brand in itself. And to what degree can it compete with those activities and the cultural mediation happening in Paris more recent arenas for art and culture?
To highlight this, other so-called grand projets by later French presidents such as Musée d’Orsay, Bibliothèque Nationale, the new ethnographical museum Musée du quai Branly and the art center Palais de Tokyo are analyzed. Also the new municipal Gaîté lyrique is included as an example of the fusion of the arts and digital culture. These artistic and cultural arenas are analyzed within a cultural policy context and discussed with focus on their architecture, atmosphere, design and mediation strategy. On this background it is concluded that the French culture is in an ‘urgency situation’ as so far as the French cultural policy on the state level is prioritizing the national cultural heritage at the disadvantage of more future orientated digital forms of creativity and communication.
This article examines hybrid organizations in the field of culture. The main two objectives of the article are 1) to examine the differences between public theatre organizations and third sector theatre organizations and 2) to study hybrid theatres in relation to public and third sector organizations. Hybrid theatres are private as to their legal status, but under municipal control. First the theories and definitions of hybridity and the overlapping between sectors are summarized. Empirical examination includes 31 big and medium-sized professional Finnish theatre institutions. In the examination, clear differences between public and third sector organizations were found in their financing, personnel and cost structures. Generally speaking, mixed-owned hybrid theatres were closer to public theatres than to third sector organizations. The study also shows that hybrid form organizations challenge legal status based definitions and distinctions in use. Further analysis is needed in the future to provide a deeper and more comprehensive picture of the phenomenon.
This article explores contemporary Swedish artists’ experiences of work–family conflict from a gender perspective. Sweden is a critical case as the country is well-known for its official gender equality policy stressing the importance of possibilities for women and men to balance family and paid work. The analysis of survey data collected from 2,025 Swedish professional visual artists shows their self-reported levels of work–family conflict to be generally low. Women artists, however, were found to experience more conflict than men artists. The results suggest that women face more pressure from the demands of both work and home than men. While an OLS regression analysis showed a relationship between the artists’ parenting responsibility and their perceived level of work–family conflict overall, for men artists this was so only at the second child. An unequal division of housework had negative consequences for women artists’ work–family balance, while the effect of being single was in this regard more pronounced among men than among women. This suggests that men, to a greater extent than women, depend on a spouse to handle the balance between work and family. Although much has happened regarding the gender issues in the art world, patterns of dependence and traditional gender roles in work and caring thus continue to persist, limiting individuals’ choices and actual ability to work as an artist, especially for women.
The article examines the underlying conceptions of the practices of creativity embedded in the global copyright construction, and argues that there is a prevailing idealized image expressed in terms of individual and autonomous performance of “solitary geniuses”. This conception is an important part of what may be called a copyright ideology that increasingly has let the law develop into an industrial protection regulation rather than an incentive legislation for creation and innovation – despite the rhetorical functions of the “solitary genius”. The article contrasts the underlying conceptions of the “solitary genius” with an increasing call for the collaborative and contextual dependence for creativity that can be found the critical literature, particularly related to the Internet and digitization. The article discusses the globally homogeneous copyright that is focusing more and stronger protection with longer and longer terms of protection, in relation to a growing discourse on concepts of participation, crowdsourcing, Read / Write culture and the challenge this entails in terms of codifying emerging normative practices and social norms in law.
Children’s cultural consumption. Democratization astray?
Democratization of culture has been a prominent ideology in the cultural policy in Norway during the last sixty years. Cultural access and dissemination is believed to promote welfare, and facilitation of cultural participation for everyone has been, and still is, a leading principle in Norwegian cultural policy - this includes children’s participation as well as adults. Still, various studies on cultural consumption among the adult population in Norway have shown that there are systematic differences in people’s access to and use of culture, related to place of residence, financial resources and social background. In this article we ask whether such differences also can be traced among children. Based on survey data from 1360 children aged 10 and 824 related parents in Southern Norway we investigate children’s visits at nine different cultural arenas, and explore whether there are differences in their visits at these arenas that can be related to household income or the parents’ educational level. The findings suggest that there are systematic differences in the children’s visits at high-brow arenas - theatre, concert, museum and library - that are positively correlated with the educational level of their mothers, whereas household income had less importance than we were expecting. The findings can be interpreted both in line with the homology thesis and the omnivore thesis. Our results suggest that democratization understood as equality of opportunity is largely obtained. However, in terms of equality of results there are systematic differences that may contribute to maintaining the life-style patterns and social closures that are found in the adult population.
Nøkkelord: Barn, kulturbruk, demokratisering, dannelse, homologi, omnivore
Runt om i Sverige har det sedan lång tid tillbaka varit möjligt att följa i författares såväl som i fiktiva gestalters fotspår, inspirerad av böcker såväl som filmatiseringar. Möjligheterna har blivit fler och det finns en växande marknad kring resor av detta slag. I sin organiserade form är dessa verksamheter del av något väsentligt större, bland annat en ekonomisk utveckling där ekonomiska och kulturella sfärer alltmer sammanfogas i politik och i praktik. De kulturella och kreativa näringarna som lyfts fram som dynamiska och lukrativa branscher ska tillsammans med näringsliv enligt regeringens handlingsplan skapa regional tillväxt och fördubbla den totala exporten (2009). I denna artikel kommer turism i möte med kultursektorn att diskuteras utifrån två empiriska delstudier som är exempel på hur intresset för den form av kulturturism som sätter skönlitterära uttryck i centrum hanteras lokalt.
All over Sweden it has since long been possible to follow authors as well as fictional characters in their footsteps, inspired by books and filmic adaptations. The opportunities have increased and there is a growing market for trips of this kind. In its organized form these activities are part of something much larger, including an economic development where economic and cultural spheres increasingly join in policy and in practice. The cultural and creative industries, highlighted as dynamic and lucrative industries, together with the business community, are according to the Government's action plan supposed to create regional growth and double the total exports (2009). In this article, tourism connecting with the cultural sector will be discussed in relation to two empirical studies that are examples of how interest in the form of cultural tourism that puts literary expression in the center has been handled locally.
The European Capital of Culture (ECOC) is one of the EU’s longest running cultural initiatives. It has an identity political focus: The designation as an ECOC requires cities to plan cultural events which foster and bring to the fore local, regional, and European cultures and identities, and moreover, present the local culture as European. How are these identity political aims mediated to the audiences of the ECOC events? The article investigates the reception of cultural events in three recent ECOCs – Pécs2010, Tallinn2011, and Turku2011 – on the basis of a questionnaire study conducted among the audiences. With the methods of statistical and discourse analysis, the article explores how the audiences perceived area-based identities to be represented in the ECOC events. The study indicates that, unlike policy aims, the audiences emphasized national culture as the most important focus of the ECOC events.