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In the last decades, many ventures and stakes into the creative and cultural industries (CCI) have been undertaken across the world. It has become somewhat more of a rule than exception that cities, regions and nations all have outspoken goals into this field. Research into the CCI tends to focus on larger cities and densely populated regions, and little research has focused on rural and sparsely populated regions.
In this paper, the purpose has been to investigate the impact on economy and employment of the cultural and creative businesses away from urban areas. A second purpose was to study ways of improving the sectors potential to grow in such regions. Thereby a contribution is made towards reducing the knowledge gap between rural versus urban areas in the field of cultural and creative industry studies.
The main methodology of the study can be characterized as interactive, as the researchers have closely followed a venture, called Drivkraft, into stimulating CCI in a remote context. The results point towards lack of efficiency and effective ways on behalf of the public sector to support the growth of CCI. In the studied venture, commercial actors themselves are shown to be better able to perform such a task. The study also shows that the CCI can be a strong contributor of employment and business opportunities in remote and sparsely populated regions as well, with high numbers of micro-businesses in our example case.
The purpose of this article is to describe and analyze recent developments in urban cultural policy in Finland. Different rationales for local cultural policy, and how they intertwine in the contemporary situation, form the general framework for the analysis. Empirically, the article focuses on around 20 Finnish cities which are examined by using, on the one hand, cultural policy documents such as city strategies and cultural strategies, and, on the other hand, data on cultural spending in these cities in 2007 and 2010. The strategies witness about a keen interest in the arts, culture, and creativity; the cultural sector is almost unanimously seen as a major component in urban development. In the more concrete reality, however, the situation looks more modest. Despite of a number of local investments, arts and culture have, generally speaking, hardly grown in economic terms, and the traditional institutions still receive by far the most funding. The comparison of figures from 2007 and 2010 also allows us to look more closely on recent local cultural policy development. The data gives grounds for an assumption that there is a trend towards regional centralization.
This article discusses the challenges that cultural policy in the Nordic countries faces in regard to the cultural diversity of contemporary society – not only in the shape of a variety of ethnic minorities, but also represented by the differentiation of the ethnic majority into a multiplicity of lifestyle groups. The article criticizes the predominant politico-cultural polarization on this subject where both nationalistic-monocultural and multiculturalistic positions tend to corner themselves into static and particularistic versions of identity politics – the perspective of which seems to be societal fragmentation. Consequently, an alternative, more dynamic concept of identity is presented from which – so it is argued – an adequate late modern cultural policy should take its departure, thus combining the recognition of diversity and the perspective of developing a dimension of cultural community on the level of society as a whole.
Nøgleord: identitetspolitik, partikularisme vs. universalisme, kulturelt demokrati, identitetsdynamik, nordisk kulturpolitik, civilsamfund, senmoderne dannelse.
Emneord: Public service, danskhed, mediepolitik, national identitet, globalisering, kulturpolitik, Public service broadcasting, Danishness, media policy, national identity, globalisation, cultural policy.