Jesus presents a demanding ethics and at the same time accepts sinners seemingly without any conditions. Luther integrates this perspective by maintaining both the absolute demands of the law and the unconditional gift of the gospel without a logical, i.e., meritorious, connection. While maintaining the same distinction, Barth felt he had to strengthen the political significance of theological ethics. Liberation theology went beyond Barth, finding the primary significance of theology in its fight against political oppression. Arguably, it then becomes dependent on political utopianism in a way that subverts the paradoxality of the gospel of unconditional grace for all sinners.

Keywords: Martin Luther, Karl Barth, liberation theology, theology of grace, political utopianism