The aim of this contribution is to use an epistemic approach to illuminate questions surrounding the issue of what counts as evidence when the public sector seeks the right model for evaluation of interventions and outcomes.

With a focus on epistemology – knowledge in its various forms – the question takes a point of departure in the Hellenic philosophy represented by the Platonic-Socratic model of knowledge and theory with predictability as an ideal. This Western approach is discussed in the light of the Aristotelian concept phronesis (practical knowledge), with its context-dependent knowledge.

This discussion leads us to a foundational problem of the priority between RCT as the Golden Standard and methods concerning values and actions involving human beings in specific situations.

In the endeavor to qualify evaluation models in the future, it seems obvious that politicians in particular should accept phronesis as equal and important knowledge. In its origin, phronesis belongs to political and moral disciplines.

Keywords: Epistemology, knowledge, RCT, phronesis, politics