Focus group interviews have gained considerable popularity in contemporary health care research. This article presents a special variety of this method, namely the multi-stage focus group interview which until recently has received little attention in research articles. However, it has proved to be a relevant and fruitful method in various, collaborative research designs. This article draws on experiences from several research projects based on a co-operative inquiry design. The dialogical nature of this research strategy has been the main reason for making use of multi-stage focus group interviews. While traditional focus group design covers at least three separate groups intending to investigate the width and variation of a certain theme, the multi-stage focus group is characterized by the in-depth exploration of the same group of theproblem, theme, or phenomenon in focusover several meetings. These dialogues make it possible for the experiences of the participants to reach higher levels of abstraction. Thus, the potential utility value of the knowledge exceeds the concrete situation in which it is created. This article illustrates the practical and methodological implications of the method.
Background: Patients hospitalized in psychiatric wards often have suicidal thoughts. While performing constant observation, nurses also make an effort to establish a therapeutic relation.
The aim of the study is to highlight knowledge – based on the experiences of expert nurse relational practice – which may prevent suicide.
Method: A descriptive design is used. Data is collected from a qualitative interview and analysed in a qualitative analysis. A story about two nurses giving a gift to a patient is analysed to articulate experience-based knowledge.
Findings: Four qualities of the nurses’ interventions are discussed: 1. Acknowledgement of the individual life situation and suffering. 2. Personal involvement. 3. Sensitive and spontaneous care. Love as land value.
Conclusion: Expert nurses execute nursing depending on the context. Still the qualities of their nursing may be valuable for developing general knowledge. If the qualities are reflected on in professional meetings, their experiences may be joint property instead of remaining professional secrets.
Background: The transition from student to newly qualified is critical for nurses in psychiatric settings. More insight into this transition is necessary to improve the interventions for recruiting and retaining.
Aim: To gain an increased understanding of the transition from student to newly qualified nurse in psychiatric settings.
Methods: Seven participants were interviewed in two focus groups. The data analysis was based on a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach, and interpretations were guided by theory on social transition. Findings: Four themes and two sub-themes were identified. 1. Experiences of the nursing education. 2. Experiences of starting in a psychiatric ward. 3. Experiences of everyday life in the clinic. 4. Reflections on the professional nursing role. These experiences could have a facilitating and/or a restricting effect. Conclusion: An introductory programme and a mentor facilitated healthy transitions, and the nursing education needs to give more priority to psychiatric nursing in order to facilitate healthy transitions. Colleagues influence the transition both positively and negatively.
The aim of this study was to explore patients’ lived experiences of participating in a fast-track programme after colonical surgery within a phenomenological framework. 16 patients suffering from colonic cancer were interviewed twice. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using Reflective Lifeworld Research.
Participating in the programme involved facing several dilemmas. It was not always easy for the patients to find the strength, courage, and will to comply with the daily regimen because discomfort and vulnerability could undermine their abilities to follow the recommendations. In this process, support from professionals or relatives was a decisive factor. After discharge, the professional recommendations were included in the patients’ daily routines to the extent which suited the individual patient’s everyday life. The findings show that these aspects are of great importance to the way in which the patients act and cope with the programme at the hospital and at home.
This article discusses healthcare interventions during terminal pathways based on perspectives of terminally ill patients and their spouses. The discussion is based on findings from an empirical study describing how terminal ill patients and their spouses experience and manage terminal pathways and theoretical assumptions of modern and late modern death. The study is inspired by grounded theory methodology. The data is based on field studies in hospitals, in hospices, and in private homes as well as on in-depth interview courses in seven families. Patients and spouses experience terminal pathways as an existential turning point with three dimensions: decision-making, loss and development, and time. The implications for the attitudes of healthcare professionals are discussed. The conclusion is that terminally ill patients and their spouses need company during terminal pathways by healthcare professionals with a sophisticated attitude to the phenomena taboo, openness, acceptance, and control in order to combine professional knowledge with the individual experiences of laymen.
Background: Collaboration between relatives and nurses in acute care settings have been sparsely investigated and mostly from nurses’ points of view. Feasible and valid instruments are needed for the assessment of collaboration, its prerequisites and outcome.
Objectives: to develop and test an instrument to assess, from the relatives’ perspectives, collaboration between relatives of frail elderly patients and the nurses in acute hospital wards as well as prerequisites for, and outcome of, collaboration.
Design: instrument development and psychometric testing.
Setting: acute medical and geriatric wards.
Participants: 156 relatives. Women constituted 74.8% of this group, children 63.9%, and spouses 20%. Methods: a model for collaboration was developed and underpinned the development and construction of the instrument. Face and content validity were examined by relatives and an expert panel before testing it among 156 relatives. Construct validity was assessed by principal component analysis and test for correlation between factors. Predictive validity was assessed by comparing factor scores with scores in outcome measures. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha for factors, item-to-total correlation, and item-to-item correlation. Systematic, internal dropout was investigated.
Results: A five-factor solution labelled „influence on decisions“, „quality of contact with nurses“, „trust and its prerequisites“, „achieved information level“, and „influence on discharge“ showed Cronbach’s alpha values between .83 and .94. Correlation between factors showed coefficients between .16 and .60. Item-to-total correlation values ranged between .34 and .83, and mean inter-item-correlation coefficients between .40 and .56. Predictive validity was indicated.
Systematic internal dropout was related to higher age and lower educational level.
Conclusion: The instrument was mainly valid and reliable. The instrument is, to our knowledge, the first of its kind and should be tested on larger samples in various cultural contexts. The feasibility of the instrument may benefit from a reduction in the number of items.