av Ingrid Poulsen og Mette Rosendal Darmer
av Pia KoustrupEngelsk sammendrag
This article is based upon a qualitative survey of the three-year nurse training which was introduced and developed by inspector and principal Cornelia Petersen (1879-1955) from 1919-1947 at Aarhus Kommunehospital. The thesis is limited to an investigation of how Cornelia Petersen worked on improving the contents and conditions of the nurses’ education locally during the period 1919-1947 at Aarhus Kommunehospital. The empirical investigation material constitutes partly of concrete sources and partly normative sources, including interviews with pervious students, textbooks, notes from the teaching sessions and rather comprehensive archive material.
The thesis concludes that during the 28 years which have been examined, the profession underwent many alterations: To start with characterized by contingencies with only little theoretical education and ending with monthly courses and the first steps towards establishing a proper nursing school. The practical part of the education did not develop quite as distinctly. In the field, the number of students admitted were defined by the need of their manpower.
In the long-term planning it is recommended that the present practitioners of the profession relate to history and take a position on what should characterize the qualifications and roles of nurses in the future where centres of knowledge might be one of several possibilities.
av Jesper Frederiksen
The construction of a modern nurseEngelsk sammendrag
The main point of perspective of nursing in clinical practise is the demand for the development of sustainable nursing. Urgent difficulties with the recruitment of new students and retaining the educated nurses in the profession increase the necessity of understanding the mechanisms beyond traditional solutions i.e. campaigning or skill learning.
Inspired by the methods of the French sociologist Bourdieu, the difference, between the ideal picture and the work in practise is examined.
The historic field construction of the field of medicine materializes as a number of battles, constructing the field out of people, positions, architecture, and artefacts. The modern nurse is mainly constructed as the human, maternal answer to an inhumane medicine.
An outline is made of different nursing orientations. Here, the internal diversity is shown as an explanation to some of the splits students and nurses are facing.
av Jane Rohde Voigt og Erik Drejer
A study unit – a new learning context in the clinical education in a hospital wardEngelsk sammendrag
The article focuses on the educational aspects of nurse training in clinical practice as conducted in a study unit – an alternative educational site in a hospital organization created for a group of nurse students, patients, and a clinical instructor. The focus is to describe the characteristics seen in a study unit in terms of students’ learning processes, guidance, and the special characteristics of the learning environment.
The content of the article is based on both organizational experiences and research conducted as a qualitative field study within a hospital organization. The approach is based on a social practice theory in order to get a closer understanding of the relations between the participants and the learning environment. The insights among learning processes in a framed context in nursing practice are, among others, the importance of continuous access to guidance as well as access to and relations with a professional and access to and relations with other students in terms of peer-learning. Finally, the organizational possibility of the arrangement is discussed in relation to a new Danish nurse student curriculum from 2008.
av Maria Lithner og Leif Hellström
Translation and test of an instrument – the Patient Learning Needs ScaleEngelsk sammendrag
The aim of this study was to find an instrument to measure patients’ perceived information needs at the time of discharge from a surgical ward, to translate the instrument into Swedish, and to test the translation in a pilot study. Another aim was to describe the process of translating an instrument and testing the translation for validity and reliability.
The PLNS – Patient Learning Needs Scale-was developed by Bubela et al 1990 and has been used in a couple of studies to measure information needs.
The perceived information needs of 22 adult individuals who underwent surgery due to colon or rectal cancer were collected. Sixteen out of 22 patients found all the 40 items easy to understand. Cronbach’s alpha for the Swedish version of the scale was 0.94. Both the validity and reliability need to be studied in a larger sample of patients, but the results indicate that information related to treatment and complications was the most important.
av Jens Rikardt Andersen og Anne-Lis Olsen
The effect of road-show on the use of snacks between mealsEngelsk sammendrag
A road-show is an outgoing activity from the hospital kitchen to the clinical departments with a variety of purposes- in this case to increase the patients consumption of groceries and snacks (between meals) produced by the kitchen.
We quantified the requisitions one week prior to the campaign and then after one week and again after two months.
The requisitions increased by 5.9% in the week after the road-show, and after two months the increase was 4.3%. The increase in the commercial nutritional supplements were 2% and 23% respectively, and these were not part of the promotion. In the departments not visited, requisitions increased by 56% and 97%. The cost of the intervention was estimated to 200 working hours.
These results strongly indicate that road-shows might not be cost-efficient in the present design. However, the requisitions of snacks are not the only variable of importance in the cooperation between the kitchen and the hospital departments.
av Ella Abraham, Ingrid Gejel og Elisabeth O.C. HallEngelsk sammendrag
It is a well-known fact that some patients risk malnutrition due to illness and hospitalisation and that frequent snacks improve poor appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate how patients and staff perceived snacks. The study was a follow-up interview study after an intervention of serving tempting pieces of snacks and having daily talks with a nurse about nutrition during illness. Seventeen patients and 16 nurses were interviewed once. The data, analyzed through qualitative content analysis, were then condensed into three themes: „freedom and joy“, „renewal of appetite“, and „recognition of the significance of food and nutrition during illness“. The snack intervention contributed to a greater attention to food and nutrition among the patients and positively influenced appetite. The nursing staff recognized the significance of snacks, but was hesitant regarding the implementation regarding the daily talks of nutrition with the patients due to a busy working day. Further research is suggested to validate the findings.
av Vibeke Zoffmann og Marit Kirkevold
Conflicting perspectives disempower patients and professionals in problem solvingEngelsk sammendrag
Conflicts in problem solving are known from diabetes research on patients with good glycemic control but have rarely been studied in the care of patients with poor glycemic control. Equally, the different perspectives of health care providers and patients have not been a focus in previous studies. The authors studied the interactions between health care providers and 11 diabetes patients with poor glycemic control in a grounded theory study at a Danish university hospital. Keeping Life And Disease Apart was identified as a core category. It involved a pattern of conflicts both between and within patients and health professionals, which disempowered them in problem solving. Three approaches to problem solving were identified: A compliance-expecting approach kept the pattern unchanged, a failure-expecting approach deadlocked the pattern, and a mutuality-expecting approach appeared to neutralize the conflict.