av Kirsten LomborgEngelsk sammendrag
Grounded theory is especially suitable for developing theory regarding social entities and processes. This article highlights practical utilisation of grounded theory in nursing research and introduces significant characteristics and criteria for quality judgment of grounded theory. The scientific and historical evolution of the method is briefly outlined and the article frames grounded theory within symbolic interactionism and pragmatism.
av Inger MoosEngelsk sammendrag
Background and theoretical framework for a PhD study Narration and identity in interactions between nursing home residents with Alzheimer’s dementia and nursing staff are described (1). The aim of the study was to investigate how the past of nursing home residents with Alzheimer’s dementia becomes the subject of conversations in daily care, and what this might mean for the resident’s sense of identity. The theoretical framework and the concepts sprang from narrative theory, discourse analysis, and included the concept of narrative identity developed in social science, literary theory and philosophy.
A discussion on the suitability of the theoretical framework and the concepts closes the article.
av Karin NaldahlEngelsk sammendrag
A theoretical framework for every day life and for the use of utilities is presented. The concept of utilities is widened to include things that patients themselves create or use as if they were utilities. In this challenging perspective utilities are discussed in everyday life practice for two women suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. In spite of their cognitive handicap both women struggle to maintain daily life and they use utilities in overcoming their problems. Nursing practice and possibilities for developing the field of dementia care are also taken into consideration. Futhermore this article can be seen as a contribution to deal with patients’ resources.
av Charlotte DelmarEngelsk sammendrag
The aim is to problematize the concept of knowledge and the question of what constitutes scientific evidence. The comprehension of epistemology and the mistakes of science are discussed offering some ideas of the application and extent of evidence-based nursing, including the consequences for clinical nursing practice and research. This concerns both epistemological questions and how evidence is understood and must be understood.
The best treatment of the individual patient in the concrete situation cannot always be based on meta-analyses of clinically controlled tests. Some health science issues and problems are dependent on time, space and context, and they demand a concept of knowledge and research approach of another character than the traditional biomedical approach.
av Inger J. DanielsenEngelsk sammendrag
Nurses’ vocational knowledge – out-of-date? Professional knowledge expresses itself in practice, and how the field accepts and uses this knowledge. The essay is based on a fieldwork in nurses’ practice where the purpose was to identify nurses’ basic knowledge and the conditions that framework sets for practical nursing. The health system is run by an economic principle, which influences the structures of the field, and structures set by an economical view point complicates nursing and developing of practical knowledge.
However, the fieldwork shows that nurses create their own room for action within established practice, where they practice what they experience as good nursing. This practice entails values and resources which do not fit into an economical way of thinking and can therefore be neglected. But these values and resources are important to prevent that modern medicine with its technological gains exposes patients to unacceptable risk, but gives them the best treatment.
av Helle Terkildsen, Dorthe Bligård og Hanne Nørup SillesenEngelsk sammendrag
Traditionally, a learning lab is used to train students’ skills before they enter clinical practice. In the learning lab at the School of Nursing in Aarhus, innovations have been introduced where the scope of functions varies depending on students’ individual learning process. Nursing students are entirely different as regards learning styles, preferences for teaching methods and current experiences. This calls for self-directed activities reflecting these differences.
Experiences from two pedagogic scenarios in the learning lab are described. Important findings are that the innovations in pedagogic methods seem to strengthen the students’ reflection and development of new skills. Tendencies among students to be motivated for further individual theoretical and practical studies are also observed.
av Ditte Maarbjerg ThinggaardEngelsk sammendrag
The aim of this article is to contribute to the discussion on the relevance of professional leadership in nursing. Mainly, the article focuses on the management and leadership of professional nursing at the strategic level. Three areas in particular are accentuated and it is argued that in these areas insight of professional nursing is relevant. At the strategic level of decision making, representation of nursing leaders is relevant as regards documentation and development of qualifications and competences. The context of leadership is discussed and it is argued that leadership rather than management is what health service needs.
av Jens Rikardt Andersen og Rigshospitalet Engelsk sammendrag
Experiences from a large-scale, interdisciplinary project with focus on nutrition of hospital patients, mainly concerning management and organisation, are reported. Three hospitals of varying size participated. The primary phase of the project demonstrated, that the main reasons for failure in the nutrition of individual patients were related to management. After a massive educational effort the goals for optimal nutrition were achieved to a markedly larger degree, and the main reasons for failures changed to the patient-related ones. Experiences from a number of experiments with the presentation of food were positive, and the food-culture in the departments was changed towards an increased use of snacks between meals. The expences in the kitchen increased markedly. We did not succeed in improving the medical doctors’ interest in the field of nutrition.
av Jette LauritzenEngelsk sammendrag
A disease such as whiplash presents a large number of complex social problems. With the help of medical anthropology it is possible to look at whiplash as a multifaceted concept influenced by the social and cultural norms in Western society. In this way whiplash can be considered to be a socially negotiable illness instead of an untreatable disease.
av Birgit Heimann Hansen