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Ever since the development in the late nineteenth century of style criticism into a major analytical tool of art history scholarship, the examination of drapery and folds has played an important role in the study of medieval sculpture. An often abstract, formalistic terminology has been developed for the description and classifcation of folds. Practitioners with experience of handling textiles and making period costumes, on the other hand, view the renderings of costume in medieval art with different eyes. In this article, the expert knowledge of a medievalist historian cum seamstress is made use of for a survey of a number of Swedish and Norwegian twelfth and thirteenth-century sculptures of seated Virgins, in order to fnd out to what extent the stylistically trained eye of the art historian might beneft from insights gained from the «hands-on» experience of the makers of medieval costumes.
A verse by the French poet Eustache Deschamps has been endlessly quoted in studies on medieval books of hours, often as a proof for late medieval aristocracy being more interested in books as luxury items than as devotional tools. Analysing three books of hours made for three royal descendants around 1415, this text aims to demonstrate that the books’ luxurious aspect also had a political motivation, and that their complex iconography was deliberately chosen to make the past present.
The point of departure of this article is to discuss the relation between the gaze and modernity in Édouard Manet’s painting L’Exposition universelle 1867. The article argues that the relationship is thematized within the motive of the exhibition itself, the motive of the fâneur, the way paint is put on the canvas, the relation between the viewer and the canvas, and within the melancholy of the gaze, personifed by the boy with the dog in the lower right corner of the picture.
The novel Albertine deals with a story from real life. But the story has been transformed by the author Christian Krohg into a roman à clef, «a novel with a key», and the main character, Albertine, is presented in the context of her disfunctional family. The novel is understood as a part of Krohg´s overall fascination for the family as a social unit. The asymmetrical balance of power between men and women in society is made the starting point for investigation into the system of prostitution. Parallels in French literature are observed as Krohg´s literary models. The comparative analysis considers, especially, novels by Edmond de Goncourt and Émile Zola.
Christian Krohg’s Albertine-project is a representation of different kinds of gazes. The Albertine artworks invite questions of sex and representation and of observation and power. Krohg’s work visualizes certain power structures concerning public prostitution and the role of the prostitute in modern society. Central ways of seeing depicted in the story include that of the police, the doctor’s clinical appraisal, and of course the sexual gaze. This essay explores these issues in light of the three terms panopticon, spectacle, and speculum.
Paul Cézanne was one whose art inspired the Norwegian naturalist painter Erik Werenskiold in the frst half of the twentieth century. In the artist’s choice of visual subjects we can fnd some similarities, illustrated in this article by Cézanne’s oilpaintings and Werenskiolds etchings and litographs. Using views of nature as a basis, they both made art works where the figure is eliminated. The consequence is that the narrative qualities are reduced, and importance is attached to formal aspects.
This article concerns the painter Matheson Roar Bye (1895–1987) and his nudes in the period 1918– 28. The paintings show how the artist develops from a painterly naturalism to what the artist himself described as «Neocubism» into Neoclassicism. The work also shows a transition from study under the tutelage of Christian Krohg at the Art Academy of Oslo, to the infuences of teachers such as Charles Guerin, Emile-Othon Friesz, Raoul Dufy, Auguste Herbin and Pedro Araujo – at several of the free academies in Paris. The artist’s discussion of the relationship between French and German painting is also referred to and considered.