At the beginning of the 1990s Norwegian land use policy changed from greenfield development to brownfield transformation and general densification within the existing urban structure. In parallel, commercial real estate development and market mechanisms became the preferred method of plan implementation. Densification and transformation sometimes occur without corresponding changes in the property structure. In some cases, however, real estate development will depend on simultaneous rights over adjacent properties, i.e. complex property structures, which in turn will depend on the implementation of well thought-out land assembly strategies. This may be the case, for example, if CBD areas grow into residential areas or when older industrial or harbour areas are redeveloped. Such developments most often also depend on the development of public land use policies in order to be realized. However, there are few examples of land assembly strategies from public authorities aimed at providing land for such densification and transformation. Thus, to implement densification and transformation plans, the Norwegian municipalities rely on cooperation with real estate developers for implementing public land policies, and complex property structures are one key to understanding densification and transformation as property development. This article discusses development strategies for complex real estate structures, particularly related to the need for land assembly and the need to use property rights as tools to ensure the implementation of planning decisions. The purpose of the discussion is to set the Norwegian situation into a larger international context.
In this paper, we discuss the use of an ecosystem service approach to cultural heritage in planning and impact assessment based on two case studies in northern Norway. We have studied how cultural heritage is identified and valued in current planning processes and how an ecosystem service approach might contribute to planning and impact assessment within the field of cultural heritage. The two cases demonstrate local and professional approaches to the identification of intangible cultural heritage in landscape and nature. We conclude that an ecosystem service approach can be applied to identify intangible cultural heritage as an aspect of landscape, ecosystems and natural resources. The registration of cultural ecosystem services in national databases is likely to be instrumental for their inclusion in impact assessment. We remain doubtful about the usefulness of the ecosystem services framework for the identification and valuation of material cultural heritage in general, but its potential for planning and impact assessment can best be evaluated after trying it out in practice.
The development of a new bioeconomy implies an increased need for renewable biological resources. This means that more of the existing biomass will be harvested and a larger land area is likely to be utilized. While it is widely acknowledged that this increased harvest and production must be sustainable, it must also be acknowledged that there are some potential challenges. For example, there may be different aims targeting the same area. To meet this challenge in an informed approach, we argue that geographical data and spatial analyses are key. We exemplify this through a study in which we utilize the spatial distribution of produced biomass from agriculture and forestry, together with the location of threatened species from the Norwegian Red List of Species. In our analyses we demonstrate that there is a spatial overlap between the most productive land for forestry and agriculture. At the same time, a high occurrence of threatened species is also found in these areas. We conclude that analysing the geography of conflicting aims is important. It documents the importance of spatial data, and findings from this type of analyses need to be included in bioeconomy decision making.
The geodetic Pageos balloon satellite was developed jointly by NASA and the US Coast and Geodetic Service, and was launched into a high earth orbit in 1966. The purpose was to perform long distance triangulation on a worldwide basis. This allowed the interconnection of national terrestrial triangulation networks on continental scales and connection between continents. The dataset was a key element in the realization of the World Geodetic System (WGS 72). The International Association of Geodesy also initiated international cooperation on continental scales. Observations for the West European Satellite Triangulation Project (WEST) began in 1968 and interconnected 40 sites in Europe by simultaneous photography of the same satellite from two or more sites. Tromsø, Norway and Catania, Italy were the north and south terminal stations for the baseline in Europe. The Geographical Survey of Norway participated in the observational work in Tromsø, Svalbard, and Oslo. Photographic plate measurements of the European sites were performed in Germany. Analysis of the observational data was conducted in the USA and Germany.
|Ansvarlig redaktør||Helén Elisabeth Elvestad, instituttleder ved institutt for eiendom og juss, NMBU|
|Redaksjonsrådsleder||Arve Leiknes, instituttleder ved HVL|
Øystein Jakob Bjerva, jordskifterettsleder
i Akershus og Oslo jordskifterett |
Leiv Bjarte Mjøs, førsteamanuensis ved HVL
Tanja Skovsgaard, førsteamanuensis ved Aalborg universitet
Per Kåre Sky, professor ved NMBU
|Eiendomsøkonomi||Sølve Bærug, førsteamanuensis ved NMBU|
Carolyn Ahmer, førsteamanuensis
Akkelies van Nes, professor ved HVL
Knut Bjørn Stokke, førsteamanuensis ved NMBU
|Geomatikk og kartfag||
Terje Midtbø, professor ved NTNU|
Trond Nordvik, førsteamanuensis ved HVL
Sjur Dyrkolbotn, førsteamanuensis
Eivind Junker, postdoktor ved NTNU
Ingrid Wang Larsen, universitetslektor ved NMBU
Anne Rogstad, seksjonssjef i juridisk seksjon ved NVE
|Kontakt||Helén Elisabeth Elvestad, firstname.lastname@example.org|
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