The Norwegian Land Consolidation Act (LCA) section 3-18, which is referred to as “protection against loss”, is one of three main conditions for implementing a land consolidation settlement. The land consolidation settlement shall not result in costs or other disbenefits that are greater than the benefits, cf. Section 3-18. However, the LCA does not lay down further rules for quantification, distribution or control over benefits generated from a land consolidation settlement. The term ‘benefit’ appears in LCA section 7-6, which determines that the Land Consolidation Court should allocate the costs in accordance with each party’s individual benefit. This article examines benefits in 25 land consolidation cases, seeks to illustrate how the benefits are distributed, and how this is reflected in the allocation of costs. The purpose is to investigate a practical topic and phenomenon that has previously only been dealt with to a minor degree.
This paper investigates and accounts for the structural predetermined framework of land acquisition negotiations. It first focuses on the ethical and legal framework, before looking at the alternative to a negotiated agreement. Finally, the paper discusses how the structural predetermined framework can affect the result of the negotiations. It also enlightens some comparisons with judicial mediation and the alternative dispute resolution method, med-arb.
In Norway, owners can claim compensation for the development potential of their property following expropriation. However, compensation is dependent on the owner showing that the development in question would have been foreseeable if the expropriation had not taken place. The interpretation of this requirement has long been a contentious issue and is associated with a complex body of case law. The present article investigates the interpretation of the foreseeability requirement relied on by the Court of Appeal in the so-called Smibelg case, pertaining to expropriation for hydropower development. The article argues that the Court of Appeal relied on an interpretation of the foreseeability condition that requires owners to show that their development plans would have been preferable to the expropriation project. In response to an article by Broch Hauge, I argue that the Court of Appeal had no secure basis in case law for this interpretation, which would severely limit owners’ right to compensation if generally adopted by the courts.
In 2018, the New Norwegian reference frame for height NN2000 is introduced in the whole country. Following NN1954, which was a national frame, NN2000 is connected to the European Vertical Reference System EVRS 2007 by the Baltic Ring. The Baltic Ring is a separate Nordic adjustment and differs slightly from the final EVRS 2007 result. For EVRS 2007 and NN2000, the heights are computed as they were in the beginning of the year 2000. While NN1954 ignored isostatic land uplift, for NN2000 under the Nordic Geodetic Commission, models to correct this have been developed and implemented in the software. Gravitational forces due to the moon and sun create earth tides. The average of the tides is named permanent tide. In EVRS 2007 and NN2000 the zero tidal system is applied, meaning that one removes the direct effect of the attraction from the sun and the moon, but retains the indirect effect caused by the deformed crust.
The terms of more than 400 licenses for the production of hydropower in Norwegian watercourses can come up for revision by 2022. These revisions of terms open up for a weighting of the societal benefit of hydropower production against the regulation’s effect on the environment and public interests, such as recreational use and landscape experiences. At the same time, they are the principal instrument to improve the environmental conditions in regulated watercourses, and thus to implement the European Water Framework Directive in Norway. This article analyses by means of the relevant documents the results, processes and knowledge base of four of the licence revisions that have been conducted so far. We ask what one can learn from these first revisions, whether they fulfil the objectives as stated in the guidelines of the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy (OED), and whether they represent only incremental or more substantial changes in the management of regulated watercourses. Our study shows i.a. that these first revisions have been long-lasting processes with a relatively low impact on hydropower production, and that they only partially fulfil the objectives of the OED guidelines. We conclude that future revisions could be improved by applying more systematic and structured decision-making processes.
|Ansvarlig redaktør||Ane Margrethe Lyng, høyskolelektor ved HVL|
|Redaksjonssekretær||Gudrun Rossebø Kringlebotn|
Leiv Bjarte Mjøs, førsteamanuensis
Per Kåre Sky, professor ved NMBU
Øystein Jakob Bjerva, ph.d. frå NMBU og Jordskifterettsleder i Akershus og Oslo jordskifterett
Tanja Skovsgaard, førsteamanuensis ved Aalborg universitet
|Eiendomsøkonomi||Sølve Bærug, førsteamanuensis ved NMBU|
Akkelies van Nes, professor ved
Knut Bjørn Stokke, førsteamanuensis ved NMBU
|Geomatikk og kartfag||
Trond Nordvik, førsteamanuensis
Terje Midtbø, professor ved NTNU
|Juridisk||Sjur Dyrkolbotn, førsteamanuensis
Anne Rogstad, seksjonssjef i juridisk seksjon ved NVE
Ingrid Wang Larsen, universitetslektor ved NMBU
Eivind Junker, postdoktor ved NTNU
|Kontakt||Ane Margrethe Lyng, firstname.lastname@example.org.|
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