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Vidkun Quisling, antisemittismen og den paranoide stil

Vidkun Quisling, Antisemitism and the Paranoid Style

Kjetil Braut Simonsen, f. 1981, ph.d. 2016, arbeider for tiden som historiker ved Jødisk Museum i Oslo.

Artikkelen analyserer Vidkun Quislings antisemittiske forestillinger, slik de kom til uttrykk under den tyske okkupasjonen. Utgangspunktet er at Quislings antisemittisme bør analyseres som en form for konspirasjonstenkning: det som i forskningen omtales som den paranoide stil. Quisling hevdet i sine taler mellom 1940 og 1945 gjentatte ganger at jødene stod bak en internasjonal sammensvergelse, som truet med å undergrave alt «nordisk» og «germansk». Ut i fra dette fremstilte han den nazistiske forfølgelsespolitikken som en legitim forsvarskamp, som var rettet mot en «jødisk overmakt».1

This article analyses the antisemitism of Vidkun Quisling—the leader of the collaborationist fascist party in Norway, Nasjonal Samling (NS)—during the German occupation of Norway from 1940 to 1945. Although Quisling’s life and political activity has been studied in depth, the role and function of antisemitism in his ideological thought and political statements during the occupation years has not been extensively explored. The main research questions of the article are as follows: What characterized Quisling’s notions of ‘the Jew’? And to which extent did antisemitism influence his political agitation and actions more generally? An important overall perspective of the article is that Quisling’s antisemitism can be described first and foremost as a form of conspiracism—what social scientist Richard Hofstadter has called the «paranoid style» in politics. Quisling interpreted history from the time of the French Revolution as an ongoing apocalyptic struggle between the «Nordic-Germanic peoples» against the imagined entity of «international Jewry». This subversive force, he claimed, was not only behind capitalism, communism, democracy and cultural decadence—it also controlled all the allied nations fighting against National Socialism. To Quisling, the ideological collaboration of Nasjonal Samling with Nazi Germany was not treason. Quite the opposite: It was legitimate due to the dire necessity of fighting «the international Jewish enemy» and to halt the ongoing «Judaisation» of Norway. The real traitors, Quisling argued, were the democratic politicians, who were but «lackeys of international Jewry», oblivious to the Norwegian people’s «true» interests. The arrests and deportations of Norwegian Jews, defended and facilitated by the NS leadership, were similarly seen as legitimate actions in the war against this imagined diabolical enemy.

Keywords: Antisemitism, Conspiracism, Vidkun Quisling, Nasjonal Samling, The paranoid style
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