Presten Hans Strøm (1726–1797) drev systematiske meteorologiske observasjoner fra sin prestegård på Sunnmøre og senere i Eiker. Basert på disse observasjonene publiserte den vidtfavnende naturgranskeren meteorologiske avhandlinger i Skriftserien til Vitenskapsselskapet i Trondheim. Hvorfor studerte Hans Strøm været? Hva forteller hans værstudier om synet på hva kunnskap var for noe, og hva formålet med å produsere den var? Denne artikkelen tar utgangspunkt i Strøms brede forfatterskap for å undersøke det vitenskapshistorikeren John V. Pickstone kaller måter å vite på, og det Lorraine Daston og Peter Galison kaller epistemiske dyder. Artikkelen tematiserer også kunnskapens åsted og spør hvilke rammer Sunnmøre og Eiker utgjorde for Strøms studier av været, og for hans vitenskap.
The Norwegian priest Hans Strøm started systematic meteorological observations at his farm in Sunnmøre on the west coast of Norway in April 1761. The results were published in the journal of the first Scientific Society in Norway, Det Trondhiemske Videnskabsselskabs Skrifter. Why did Strøm observe the weather? To answer this question, this article examines what Strøm regarded as knowledge, and his motivations for knowing. In the course of his career, he published more than 5000 pages of research on nature and of topographical and edifying literature. This wider authorship is taken into account in the article. My investigation was inspired by the works of historians of science such as John V. Pickstone, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison. Pickstone’s ways of knowing and Daston and Galison’s epistemological virtue known as truth-to-nature form the frameworks for this analysis of Strøm’s science. The former offers a way of examining Strøm’s science without studying disciplines, and the latter a way of understanding essences of science before objectivity. Among Pickstone’s ways of knowing, world reading and natural history give meaning when applied to Strøm’s science. However, in the process, the distinction between them is blurred. Strøm lived in rural Norway, but this did not prevent his membership of many international societies of scientists and researchers. Here, I discuss the role Sunnmøre and Eiker had as venues of Strøm’s science, and conclude that his living in rural Norway was a premise, not an obstacle, to his scientific practice.
Denne artikkelen vil vise at utkantregioner som Norge tok aktivt del i den fremvoksende globale økonomien både på slutten av 1700- og første halvdel av 1800-tallet. Ved å se på tømmerhandelen vil artikkelen vise at deltagelsen langt fra var basert på sentrums utnytting av et «perifert» Norge, men heller at sentrum var avhengig av norske varer på denne tiden. Den norske tømmereksporten reagerte dynamisk og fleksibelt på endringer i det internasjonale tømmermarkedet før, under og etter Napoleonskrigene. Resultatet var at Norge etter kort tid ble en av de sentrale tømmerleverandørene for flere europeiske land.
Peripheral regions like Norway were actively engaged in global trade and economic development in the decades around 1800. With a focus on the timber trade, the article shows that participation was far from motivated by the centre’s exploitation of the periphery. Instead, the centre was dependent on Norwegian produce such as timber in the final decades of the 18th and first decades of the 19th century. With the Norwegian timber trade reacting dynamically and flexibly to changes occurring in the international timber market before, during and after the Napoleonic Wars, Norway became one of the main timber suppliers to several European countries.
The principal aim of this article is methodological: to assess the value of 3D virtual worlds for historical research on the one hand and for the dissemination of history on the other (section 7). The case study (section 4) is a virtual world portraying migration from Voss to New York in 1882 via the ports of Bergen, Hull and Liverpool (section 3). The historiography of 19th-century migration has tended to emphasise the Norwegian and American ends of the journey (section 2), but the virtual world discussed here focuses on the lesser-studied middle stage of that journey: the transmigration across England (section 5). The second aim is to assess (and to champion) the value of microhistorical materials (specifically indirect personal stories) as historical sources (section 8).
The discipline of history has embraced the research opportunities offered by the rapid development in digital humanities over the past decade or so. Computer technology has enabled text mining and the analysis of large bodies of data to an extent that would have been impossible a generation earlier. The latest generation of interactive applications and user-generated content (‘Digital History 2.0’), however, allows for a different approach to presenting and researching the past. In the research project which underpins this article we use an online 3D virtual world not only to portray emigration from Norway to America but also to pioneer a new approach to historical research. Freely available virtual world software (Open Sim) was used to recreate the journey of an emigrant travelling from Voss to New York in the early 1880s. The Voss farm and the port of Bergen are included in the virtual world, as is New York. A particular emphasis, however, is the lesser-studied ‘England leg’ of the journey, via Hull and Liverpool, which had become the standard emigration route by the 1870s, and we describe this journey in some detail. We also describe the experience of creating a historical virtual world to guide others interested in this means of historiography. Aside from official records, there is frustratingly little evidence of the experience of Norwegian migration, despite the fact that hundreds of thousands of individuals were involved. Just as fictional accounts have gained credibility as valuable sources of information ‘from below’, we make the case that the «indirect personal stories» of descendants and their contribution to microhistory need to be given proper consideration as potential sources. Given how widely dispersed the informants are, we argue that online interactive spaces are an essential tool for historians, and we should not be put off by current technological limitations and challenges.
Implementation of the Castberg Laws in 1916 significantly impacted the lives and livelihoods of single mothers and midwives. The maternity policies included in the legislation on «Assistance for Children» and «Children Whose Parents are not Married» promised these women economic benefits, while simultaneously bolstering health and welfare officials’ authority over maternity. This article argues that single mothers’ and midwives’ individual and collective responses to these policy effects ultimately influenced the interpretation and revision of policy at the local and national levels. In doing so, this research contributes to historiographic discussions of women’s participation in the creation of welfare states and the extents and limits of state power and control and women’s agency.
Implementation of the Castberg Laws in 1916 significantly impacted the lives and livelihoods of single mothers and midwives. The maternity policies included in the legislation on «Assistance for Children» and «Children Whose Parents are not Married» promised these women economic benefits, while simultaneously bolstering health and welfare officials’ authority over maternity. This article argues that single mothers’ and midwives’ individual and collective responses to these policy effects ultimately influenced the interpretation and revision of policy at the local and national level. Many single mothers did not apply for assistance and those who did tried to avoid some of the more onerous criteria. These types of response at times led local officials to implement stricter measures and controls over the women who received support under the Castberg Laws. Midwives attempted to use the Laws to gain greater professional concessions from the government, but their participation in the implementation of these policies complicated the relationship they had with birthing women and the state. Women’s varied reactions to the impact the Laws had on their daily lives prompted small and large-scale changes that affected the shape of some of Norway’s earliest and most ground-breaking social policies. This research contributes to historiographic discussions of women’s participation in the creation of welfare states and the extents and limits of state power and control and women’s agency.