This article examines how Sarpsfossen has been used as a bearer of identity for the city of Sarpsborg through anniversary markings for the last hundred years. Anniversary markings give cities an opportunity to emphasize the origins of the city, and its historical roots are closely linked with how the city presents itself and its identity. The tale of Sarpsborg begins with two main “components”, which will always be central in the history of the city: the waterfall Sarpsfossen and the founder of Sarpsborg Olav Haraldsson. How have these two key elements been used throughout history and in the anniversary markings? Which role have they played in the narrative and development of Sarpsborg? Olav Haraldsson (Olav the Holy) is an important symbol, also nationally, and as a founder of the city, he naturally plays a central part in the tale of the city. But what about the Sarpsfossen? Has it been valued in the same way as Olav Haraldsson during the four city anniversaries in Sarpsborg between 1916 and 2016?
In Norway in the 19th and 20th century the consumption of liquor formed the basis for a peculiar political culture manifested in restrictive alcohol legislation in combination with a strong temperance movement. A restrictive alcohol culture in a country where the alcohol consumption was low in comparison with other countries in Europe at that time is in this article perceived as a paradox. The article investigates how drinking habits were practiced among the elites and common people in rural and urban areas in the county of Telemark and concludes that drinking habits in Telemark in the 19th century confirm the impression of Telemark as divided. In the rural and western part of the county popular drinking habits and practices were maintained. People seemed to express a mentality in which maintenance of traditions, habits and practices was valued. A premise for social and cultural acceptance was to sustain the norms and values that old practices represented.
In the urban areas in Telemark the bourgeoisie influenced social manners and drinking practices. According to their economic and cultural power, the bourgeois way of life served as an example in local communities. Continental manners, which also meant heavy drinking, were practiced but this way of drinking was perceived as more “sophisticated”.
Traditionally, the turning point in the fight against tuberculosis is perceived as Robert Koch’s description of the bacterium in 1882. In Norway, the legislation from 1900 has been interpreted as a breakthrough. However, how was tuberculosis understood by doctors in Kristiania in the latter half of the 19th century? As it appears in Norsk Magazin for Lægevidenskaben – the country's most important medical journal – the term was far from unambiguous and precise. During the period 1840-1900, three forms of understanding dominate: tuberculosis as hereditary, something which arose spontaneously from imbalance or as a disease mediated through infection. Throughout the period, tuberculosis was absent in the journal's infectious disease tables. Furthermore, the effective fight against the disease met resistance. Opposition expressed itself through liberal arguments: measures were terrorism and threats to personal freedom. The opposition to fighting tuberculosis was also based on scepticism towards bacteria as pathogens. There are grounds for claiming that “tuberculosis” did not exist in Kristiania – a parallel to Bruno Latour’s pointing out that Pharaoh Ramses could not have had tuberculosis, despite the fact that French doctors recently have detected the disease in his mummy. The Egyptians did not know tuberculosis 3,000 years ago.
Heimen er det sentrale vitskaplege tidsskriftet for lokal og regional historie. Tidsskriftet har vore organ for Landslaget for lokalhistorie sidan skipinga i 1922.
Heimen har som mål å publisere studiar over lokale samfunn eller fenomen som kan kaste lys over større einingar eller spørsmål. Redaksjonen har som ambisjon å løfte fram nye tema som er i forskingsfronten innanfor feltet og legg vekt på det nyskapande både med omsyn til teoriar og metode. Gjennom artiklar, debattinnlegg og bokmeldingar speglar tidsskriftet heile landet, men redaksjonen held òg ope for relevante internasjonale bidrag. Lokal- og kulturhistorisk interesserte med ulik bakgrunn og frå ulike fag er velkomne som bidragsytarar.
Line Grønstad, Oslo
Hans Hosar, Oslo
Berit Eide Johnsen, Kristiansand
John Ragnar Myking, Bergen
Aud Mikkelsen Tretvik, Trondheim
Steinar Aas, Bodø
Sats: Tekstflyt AS
ISSN Online: 1894-3195
Heimen blir utgjeve av Landslaget for lokalhistorie i samarbeid med Universitetsforlaget. Tidsskriftet mottek støtte frå Nasjonalt tidsskriftkonsortium for humaniora og samfunnsvitskap.
Framsidebilete: To av Thorbjørn Egners tolv tablå (nr. 1 og 12) over Sarpsborgs historie, 1939. Foto: Øyvind Andersen, Østfoldmuseene.
© Universitetsforlaget 2019 / Scandinavian University Press