The article deals with the outskirts of European great power conflicts aiming to analyse how continental conflicts and wars affected settlements beyond their epicentres, on the fringes of Europe as it were. One aim is to analyse to which extent civilian populations on the outskirts experienced these conflicts but also to which extent communities were shaped by them, directly as well as indirectly. The main conflict of study is the Thirty Years’ war as this was the period in which the fortress of Skånes, the case study presented in the article, was first commissioned.
The fortress of Skånes in Levanger will be used as a backdrop against which these conflicts will be studied. The actual confines of the fortress throughout its different phases, from its construction in 1643 up to its decommissioning and subsequent demolition in 1747, will be used in an attempt to measure the overall impact on society. The idea is that the size of the fortress mirrors the gravity of the situation and the perceived threat.
There are written sources in the form of archives and tax registers which can give good indications of the overall situation but as for more specific events, data is sometimes scarce. There is however, ample military cartographic material. These maps will be used in an interdisciplinary analysis together with archaeology and the written sources to try to glean a clearer picture of the different phases that will be dealt with in this paper. By archaeology is first and foremost meant the visible remains in today’s landscape, as finds remain few, or they are simply not turned in and recorded, as the Norwegian heritage legislation does not cover stray finds from after the Reformation. By visible remains is meant earthworks and traces of bastions; the barrel-vaulted cellar of the powder magazine still remains under a present-day farm house.
This article pertains to the Great Transformation, and its impact on the use of wild plants and herbs for food in rural areas of southern Norway. To shed light on the subject, this article frequently uses the collected answers of relevant questionnaires from Norsk Etnologisk Gransking (NEG). By using some specific examples from the questionnaires, the article attempts to illustrate the impact of the Great Transformation on different villages and societies. This is achieved by comparing the difference between those societies early connected to modern forms of communications, and those more outlying villages and hamlets impacted by the modern world at a much later date. By investigating the usage of a certain set of selected dishes and beverages containing wild herbs and plants, the article can provide concrete examples on how the Great Transformation of Norwegian rural societies impacted their need of and access to certain ingredients.
From the 1890s to World War I, the fire insurance mutuals had insured larger values than their main competitor, the state-owned Norges Brannkasse, in the countryside. In 1922 twenty-three local fire insurance mutuals established a common reinsurance mutual, Samtrygd, which also functioned as an umbrella organisation for an increasing number of members. The main initiators behind Samtrygd were not the fire insurance mutuals, which were predominantly locally oriented, but the Farmer’s Union and a commercial bank, Bøndernes Bank, which guaranteed Samtrygd’s start-up costs. Samtrygd solved one of the structural weaknesses of the local fire insurance mutuals: lack of a cost-efficient reinsurance, which was necessary to insure ever more expensive buildings and chattel. From the late 1920s, more than half of local fire insurance mutuals were members of Samtrygd. Thus, with the assistance of Samtrygd the local fire insurance mutuals were able to consolidate their market position in countryside in the inter-war period despite the fact that fire insurance continued to be the only form of non-life insurance they could offer. Their core customers and members, the farmers, bought cars and lorries in significant numbers which demanded other forms of non-life insurance. Samtrygd’s initiators had planned that the fire insurance mutuals should expand into more densely populated areas and possibly the suburbs in the municipalities in the countryside. However, the fire insurance mutuals, governed by the local farmer elite, decided to stick to their last, and abstained from engaging in the growing markets in such areas.
This article describes a didactic development project between the University of Stavanger and National Archives of Norway related to the education of teachers (5th–10th grade). In an introductory seminar the students were introduced to core subjects in archival theory and practice. Thereafter they were presented to incidents in the lives of three persons, documented in open accessible archival sources at the State Archives of Stavanger. Based on one of these incidents documented, they were supposed to make their own narrative. In addition they should present a short critical essay on the method used. The students worked in groups of two to five students.
Narratives are highly profiled in the curriculum for the elementary school, and the pupils are expected to be able to create narratives about persons from different contemporary and past societies. The pupils are even expected to be able to reflect upon historical and societal challenges based upon information from digitally borne and paper-based sources. They should also by themselves have gained experience in how narratives can be made from documentation of real incidents, and be trained in reflecting about the validity of the sources and the credibility of the narratives.
In order to realize these goals narrative polyphony was developed as a didactic approach. Through the narratives made by the students on basis of the provided sources, persons from the past were made alive. The individuals were visualized in various ways in the different narratives, and their portraits were so clear and nuanced that different possible sides of a specific person emerged.
Heimen er det sentrale vitenskapelige tidsskriftet for lokal og regional historie. Tidsskriftet har vært organ for Landslaget for lokalhistorie siden stiftelsen i 1922.
Heimen har som mål å publisere studier over lokale samfunn eller fenomener som kan kaste lys over større enheter eller spørsmål. Redaksjonen har som ambisjon å løfte fram nye temaer som er i forskningsfronten innenfor feltet og legger vekt på det nyskapende både med hensyn til teorier og metode. Gjennom artikler, debattinnlegg og bokmeldinger avspeiler tidsskriftet hele landet, men redaksjonen holder også åpent for relevante internasjonale bidrag. Lokal- og kulturhistorisk interesserte med ulik bakgrunn og fra ulike fag er velkommen som bidragsytere.
Finn-Einar Eliassen, Tønsberg
Lars Gaute Jøssang, Bergen
Knut Sprauten, Oslo
Liv Helene Willumsen, Tromsø
Line Grønstad, Oslo
Steinar Aas, Bodø
Sats: Laboremus Sandefjord AS
ISSN Online: 1894-3195
Heimen utgis av Landslaget for lokalhistorie i samarbeid med Universitetsforlaget. Tidsskriftet mottar støtte fra Nasjonalt tidsskriftkonsortium for humaniora og samfunnsvitenskap.
Forsidebilde: Militærkart over Levanger fra ca. 1700. Kilde: Levanger kommune, http://www.levanger.kommune.no/Prosjekt/Levanger-sentrum---fredning/Historisk-bakgrunn-karttegninger/
© Universitetsforlaget 2018 / Scandinavian University Press