This article analyses the establishment and successful diffusion of fire insurance mutuals in the Norwegian countryside between 1816 and World War I. Prior to the establishment of fire insurance mutuals, the only means of fire insurance of farm houses and farm outbuildings for Norwegian peasants and farmers was the state fire insurance company, Norges Brannkasse. Although the Norwegian fire insurance market was the most open in Europe, foreign insurance companies restricted themselves to insurance of chattels and stocks. However, their premiums were too expensive for peasants and farmers, who developed local fire insurance mutuals based on apportioned liability. They were mostly run by unpaid or symbolically remunerated elected representatives creating small administrative costs. The fire insurance mutuals also proved effective in coping with the challenges of moral hazard and asymmetric information. Thus, fire damages were lower than in Norges Brannkasse. From 1890s the fire insurance mutuals insured larger values than Norges Brannkasse in the countryside. Thus, the fire insurance mutuals played an important role in the economic modernization of the countryside until World War I.
In this article, I show how South Saami people and Saami matters are represented in Mid-Norwegian regional newspapers from the 1880s to 1990. My focus is on the South Saami as most previous research on media representation has had a North Saami focus. The questions asked are: To what extent and how are Saami matters represented in the newspapers? How do the papers represent South Saami identity, and to what extent and how are South Saami voices represented?
The texts fall into four main categories: reindeer herding; Saami politics; school and language; history and culture. Social Darwinist or racial biological views are virtually non-existent in my material, although quite common in late 19th and early 20th century topographical literature about the Saami. There are examples of stereotyping and othering, mostly before the 1960s, but in general, the regional newspapers of my study take a respectful interest in Saami matters, although Saami matters do not make up a substantial part of the newspaper content until the 1970s.
Throughout the Middle Ages there was a surplus production of salt in several of the inner fjords of Norway. For farms in these areas, salt production was part of a diversified economy where a number of resources could be utilised, such as animal husbandry, agriculture or fishing. Salt was produced by heating seawater in large shallow iron pans. This required substantial amounts of firewood, thus making the inner fjord areas especially suited for salt production.
Another likely contributing factor for the surplus production of salt in the inner fjord areas was proximity to mountainous and valley regions, where salt had to be imported. Place names and written sources indicate that salt was an important commodity between inner fjords and the inlands of South Norway.
Records from the district court jurisdiction of Nordhordland, Sunnhordland and Hardanger and Voss reveal 43 women accused of infanticide during the period 1642–1799. Most of these mothers were unmarried maids, often with small resources and limited social networks. They were often pregnant with married men, and several with their masters, or their masters sons. The purpose of this article is to investigate how differences and similarities in the social status and relationships amongst the accused of infanticide effected the course of action in these cases. In addition to investigating infanticide cases from the mentioned jurisdictions, the findings will be compared to other related research, both Norwegian and international.
The small island municipality in south-western Norway, Kvitsøy, has long maritime traditions. The Norwegian state has operated both a lighthouse and a maritime pilot station on the islands for over 200 years. In the late 1970s the Norwegian Coastal Administration (NCA) suggested closing down the maritime pilot station in Kvitsøy, and running the maritime pilot service from the mainland instead, due to cost benefits. Local politicians started to work strategically towards the government and parliament politicians, in order to get the Norwegian Coastal Administration to invest in a new maritime pilot station in Kvitsøy. The majority of parliament politicians in the early 1980s supported Kvitsøy’s claim, and argued that an investment in a new pilot station would be in line with the Norwegian regional policy to secure settlement and jobs in the outskirts of Norway.
The pilot station was finally built in the late 1980s. Later, in 2003, the pilot station was expanded to house also a Vessel Traffic Service-station.
The NCA investments in Kvitsøy had little impact on either new settlements, or local jobs. Only two locals were employed at the pilot station, and the other employees lived in on the mainland and did not move to Kvitsøy. The were no locals working on the VTS-station either, other than one in the administration and one cleaning help.
The Norwegian regional policy has, since early 1990s, become more fragmented and characterized by local measures. The NCA investments in Kvitsøy had little or no connection with the superior goals of the regional policy, and can therefore be considered as a symbolic political decision. However, the investments have been very important for Kvitsøy in maintaining its maritime traditions.
1–2018, årgang 55
Heimen er det sentrale vitenskapelige tidsskriftet for lokal og regional historie. Tidsskriftet har vært organ for Landslaget for lokalhistorie siden stiftelsen i 1922.
Heimen har som mål å publisere studier over lokale samfunn eller fenomener som kan kaste lys over større enheter eller spørsmål. Redaksjonen har som ambisjon å løfte fram nye temaer som er i forskningsfronten innenfor feltet og legger vekt på det nyskapende både med hensyn til teorier og metode. Gjennom artikler, debattinnlegg og bokmeldinger avspeiler tidsskriftet hele landet, men redaksjonen holder også åpent for relevante internasjonale bidrag. Lokal- og kulturhistorisk interesserte med ulik bakgrunn og fra ulike fag er velkommen som bidragsytere.
Finn-Einar Eliassen, Tønsberg
Lars Gaute Jøssang, Bergen
Knut Sprauten, Oslo
Liv Helene Willumsen, Tromsø
Line Grønstad, Oslo
Steinar Aas, Bodø
Sats: Laboremus Sandefjord AS
ISSN Online: 1894-3195
Heimen utgis av Landslaget for lokalhistorie i samarbeid med Universitetsforlaget. Tidsskriftet mottar støtte fra Nasjonalt tidsskriftkonsortium for humaniora og samfunnsvitenskap.
Forsidebilde: Utsikt fra Kvitsøy fyr. Foto: Kvitsøy kommune/Oddbjørg Sætre.
© Universitetsforlaget 2018