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English Didactics in Norway
– 30 years of doctoral research
Ulrikke Rindal & Lisbeth M Brevik (red.)
Innhold Bokbeskrivelse Referanse
Åpen tilgang
(side 9-15)
av Ulrikke Rindal og Lisbeth M Brevik
THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH AS A SCHOOL SUBJECT
Åpen tilgang
(side 16-34)
av Aud Marit Simensen
Sammendrag

This chapter reports the doctoral study Engelsk i grunnskolen: Mål og innhold (Simensen, 1988a), which includes three investigations central to the field of English didactics. The overall aim of the study was to produce knowledge about the aims and content of the English school subject in compulsory school. One central focus was to investigate to what extent there was agreement over time between ideas in selected academic disciplines, “parent disciplines”, and ideas in the school subject, as reflected in curricula, assessment documents and adapted readers as teaching materials.

ENGLISH WRITING
Åpen tilgang
2. PhD revisited: Established and emerging business genres
Genre analyses of corporate annual reports and corporate environmental reports
(side 35-56)
av Aud Solbjørg Skulstad
Sammendrag

This chapter reports on a doctoral study (Skulstad 1997) which examined an established and an emerging genre within a specific professional domain, using genre analysis as a theoretical and methodological framework. The doctoral thesis was put within an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) context, and the chapter explains how this study relates to the use of authentic texts, materials development and the development of vocationally oriented language learners’ genre awareness.

Åpen tilgang
3. PhD revisited: Future teachers of English
A study of competence in the teaching of writing
(side 57-77)
av Ion Drew
Sammendrag

This chapter reports a doctoral study (Drew, 1997) which explored factors linked to student teachers’ competence to teach written English in Norwegian compulsory schools. The teaching of writing was perceived from the duality of writing competence, with a focus on form, and the perceived ability to teach writing. The results showed that student teachers’ writing only marginally developed during a one-year English teacher training course, while their perceptions of teaching written English in schools changed considerably. Implications for L2 teaching and further research are discussed.

Åpen tilgang
4. PhD revisited: Formative assessment of writing in English
A school-based study of perceptions, practices and transformations
(side 78-97)
av Tony Burner
Sammendrag

This chapter reports from a doctoral study (Burner, 2016a) that explored teacher and student perceptions and practices of formative assessment (FA) in English writing classes. Four English teachers and their students (N=100) took part in the study. The assessment situation was analyzed using mixed methods before a plan for intervention cycles was made continuously throughout a school year. The main results, their implications for teaching English in Norway, and further research will be discussed in this chapter.

Åpen tilgang
(side 98-117)
av May Olaug Horverak
Sammendrag

This chapter reports a PhD study (Horverak, 2016) that investigated English writing instruction practices and the effects of a genre-pedagogical approach defined as scaffolding writing instruction. The results suggest that this approach supports the students to improve their argumentative writing. The chapter discusses various aspects of writing instruction and feedback on writing, and concludes by advocating the need for a coherent model for teaching writing in English teacher programmes.

Åpen tilgang
6. PhD revisited: INGlish English
The progressive construction in learner narratives
(side 118-139)
av Stephanie Hazel Wold
Sammendrag

This chapter presents a doctoral study (Wold, 2017) that investigated L1 Norwegian learners’ use of the English progressive aspect (BE + V-ing). While the construction is consistently overused, results indicate that Norwegian learners to some extent are sensitive to which verb meanings are most compatible with the progressive. The chapter discusses how such learner usage could be addressed by Norwegian teachers.

DIGITAL ENGLISH COMPETENCE
Åpen tilgang
7. PhD revisited: The teacher as interface
Teachers of EFL in ICT-rich environments: Beliefs, practices, appropriation
(side 140-161)
av Andreas Lund
Sammendrag

This chapter summarizes a doctoral study (Lund, 2003) that investigated teachers of English in Norwegian Senior High schools and their use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). The aim was to examine how teachers perceive the impact of ICT on their school subject, how they practiced in technology-rich environments, and how they appropriated ICTs to transform and expand their practices. The conceptual framework and theoretical perspective guiding the analysis were drawn from sociocultural perspectives and especially Cultural-Historical Activity Theory. The chapter discusses current and future issues related to teaching English in technology-rich and networked environments.

Åpen tilgang
8. PhD revisited: Preparing future teachers to teach with ICT
An investigation of digital competence development in ESL student teachers in a Norwegian teacher education program
(side 162-182)
av Fredrik Mørk Røkenes
Sammendrag

This chapter reports a doctoral study (Røkenes, 2016b) which investigated English as a Second Language (ESL) student teachers’ development of digital competence in a Norwegian secondary teacher education context. Results show that ESL student teachers might be digitally confident, but lack knowledge and awareness of how to use information and communications technology (ICT) didactically to support pupils’ learning in English. Implications and further research for professional digital competence (PDC) development in ESL for Norwegian teacher education are discussed.

READING IN ENGLISH
Åpen tilgang
9. PhD revisited: The Acid Test
Does upper secondary EFL instruction effectively prepare Norwegian students for the reading of English textbooks at colleges and universities?
(side 183-206)
av Glenn Ole Hellekjær
Sammendrag

This quantitative study used an International English Language Testing System (IELTS) Reading Module to examine the academic English reading proficiency of Norwegian upper secondary and university students. About 66% of the senior upper secondary school students scored below IELTS Band 6 compared to 32% of the university students. Their problems were due to slow reading for detail and poor vocabulary. Implications for teaching and further research are discussed.

Åpen tilgang
10. PhD revisited: How teachers teach and readers read
Developing reading comprehension in English in Norwegian upper secondary school
(side 207-228)
av Lisbeth M Brevik
Sammendrag

This chapter reports a doctoral study (Brevik, 2015) that investigated the practices involved in developing reading comprehension in English as a second language in upper secondary school; focusing specifically on reading strategy instruction and use. The chapter describes how strategies were taught and used markedly differently in general and vocational study programmes, and addresses recent developments related to reading comprehension instruction across contexts in Norway, with suggestions for further research.

Åpen tilgang
(side 229-251)
av Rebecca Anne Charboneau Stuvland
Sammendrag

This chapter reports a doctoral study (Charboneau, 2016) that investigated the use of four approaches to EFL reading instruction in Norwegian 4th–5th grades. The study used a mixed-methods approach comprising a questionnaire sent to teachers throughout Norway and a case study of four schools. The results suggest it was challenging to provide differentiated teaching to meet students’ abilities and needs. The chapter discusses implications for EFL reading instruction, and suggestions for future research.

CULTURE AND LITERATURE
Åpen tilgang
12. PhD revisited: Questions of culture and context in English language textbooks
A study of textbooks for the teaching of English in Norway
(side 252-273)
av Ragnhild Elisabeth Lund
Sammendrag

This chapter reports a doctoral study (Lund, 2007) that investigated four English textbook series for lower secondary school, published 1997–1999. The 1997 national curriculum introduced new perspectives on the role of cultural questions for teaching and learning English. The chapter describes how textbooks followed up these ideas only to a limited degree. It also describes recent developments related to questions of context and culture in foreign language education, and suggests further research.

Åpen tilgang
13. PhD revisited: Poetry: Prima Vista
Reader-response research on poetry in a foreign language context
(side 274-294)
av Signe Mari Wiland
Sammendrag

This chapter reports a doctoral study (Wiland, 2007) that investigates the experience of poetry reading in English and aims at revealing what foreign language students experience cognitively and affectively when they read a poem for the first time. By applying an experimental slow line-by-line reading method, the assumption is that the readers will document more thoughts and feelings than when conventional approaches are used. The chapter discusses some of the implications of this research.

Åpen tilgang
(side 295-313)
av Annelise Brox Larsen
Sammendrag

In this chapter, the results of a doctoral study (Larsen, 2009) of thematic content in Nordic pupil narratives in EFL2 are presented. A literary analysis of pupil texts focussing on intertextual references was applied. The findings suggest that the pupils’ narratives formed a discourse in which these narratives explored the power aspects of the parent–child relationship, rebelled against teachers, and ridiculed the perfectionism ideals of popular culture. Implications for teaching English in Norway and suggestions for further research will also be discussed.

Åpen tilgang
(side 314-334)
av Juliet Munden
Sammendrag

This chapter summarises a doctoral study (Munden, 2010) that describes, compares and explains how student teachers make sense of literature. The twenty-two participants were student teachers of English in either Norway or Eritrea. They first wrote answers to a questionnaire and then to assignments based on three literary texts. How and what they wrote provides insight into their cultural and academic expectations and socialisation, both as members of an interpretive community and as individuals. These insights can contribute to raising English teachers’ awareness of how differently learners make sense of texts in their own classrooms.

ORAL PROFICIENCY
Åpen tilgang
16. PhD revisited: Meaning in English
L2 attitudes, choices and pronunciation in Norway
(side 335-355)
av Ulrikke Rindal
Sammendrag

This chapter reports a doctoral study (Rindal, 2013) that investigated L2 practices in a English language teaching (ELT) context using a theoretical and methodological framework at the intersection of linguistics and education. The results suggest that Norwegian learners can express local and individual identity through English. The chapter discusses the implications of such L2 social meanings for the teaching of English in Norway, and presents suggestions for future research.

Åpen tilgang
17. PhD Revisited: Young language learners
The acquisition of English in Norwegian first-grade classrooms
(side 356-375)
av Anne Dahl
Sammendrag

This chapter reports a PhD study (Dahl, 2014) on the effects of English target language input in Norwegian first-grade classrooms, comparing three learner groups with different volumes of input. The results highlight the role of input for acquisition, showing that with sufficient exposure, development in a foreign language can be rapid and similar to other forms of second language acquisition. Overall contributions and practical implications of the study to the field of English teaching are presented.

Åpen tilgang
18. PhD revisited: What is to be assessed?
Teachers’ understanding of constructs in an oral English examination in Norway
(side 376-396)
av Henrik Bøhn
Sammendrag

In this chapter, the research design of and main findings from Bøhn’s (2016) doctoral study are presented. The study used educational and psychological measurement theory and a mainly qualitative methodological approach to investigate teachers’ understanding of what should be assessed in an oral exam in English in Norway. The findings indicated that the teachers generally agreed on the main aspects of student performance to be assessed, but disagree more on the more narrowly defined aspects. On the basis of the results the chapter discusses implications for oral assessment in English language teaching and possible avenues for further research.

Åpen tilgang
19. PhD revisited: The professional development of English language teachers
Investigating the design and impact of a national in-service EFL teacher education course
(side 397-417)
av James Coburn
Sammendrag

The PhD study reported here examined the design of a part-time, one-year, blended-mode in-service English teacher education course and its impact on the development of thirty-three experienced primary school teachers. While the teachers became more confident and competent, insufficient opportunities for oral English practice and teacher collaboration were design weaknesses. The chapter includes a discussion of implications for English teaching and design of comparable courses, providing suggestions for future research.

STATE-OF-THE-ART
Åpen tilgang
(side 418-440)
av Ulrikke Rindal og Lisbeth M Brevik
This edited volume presents 30 years of English didactics research (1988–2017) in Norway. As a collection of chapters, each representing a doctoral study, the book is a complete overview of all doctoral research within the field. Each study discusses empirical, methodological and theoretical contributions, and implications for teaching English as a second or additional language (L2) today.

For the first time, research from English didactics in Norway is collected in one volume. The book is therefore invaluable to researchers of English as a school subject, to teacher educators looking to provide future teachers of English with research-based insight, and to experienced English teachers looking to develop their teaching practice in ways that are research-based and relevant. 

The chapters also provide models and insight to master (MA) students and doctoral (PhD) students about to embark on English didactics research projects. All chapters present suggestions for future research, and offer a detailed presentation of the methodology and theoretical framing of each study, as well as reviews of other research in each particular field. 
Ulrikke Rindal

Ulrikke Rindal is Associate Professor of English didactics at the Department of Teacher Education and School Research at the University of Oslo. Her research interests relate mainly to sociolinguistic aspects of learning and teaching English, focusing specifically on oral communication. Her current research is concerned with attitudes towards non-native spoken English, and quality English teaching using video-observation data.

Lisbeth M Brevik

Lisbeth M Brevik is Associate Professor of English didactics at the Department of Teacher Education and School Research at the University of Oslo. Her research interests relate mainly to sociocultural aspects of learning and teaching English in secondary school and teacher education. Her current research is concerned with quality English teaching using video-observation data, and scaffolding reading comprehension in and outside school.

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