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Open access
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 8-20)
av Colin Lankshear og Michele Knobel
«Digital literacy» er i stadig større grad uttrykt som et utdanningspolitisk mål. Populære definisjoner varierer i innhold, men målsettingen for begrepet er sjelden problematisert. Denne artikkelen diskuterer «digital literacy» ut ...
SammendragEngelsk sammendrag

Sammendrag

«Digital literacy» er i stadig større grad uttrykt som et utdanningspolitisk mål. Populære definisjoner varierer i innhold, men målsettingen for begrepet er sjelden problematisert. Denne artikkelen diskuterer «digital literacy» ut fra en forståelse om at begrepet ikke er lukket, entydig og selvforklarende. Snarere enn å forstå «digital literacy» som et enhetlig fenomen, er det bedre å tenke seg et spekter av «digital literacies». Artikkelen konkluderer med å synliggjøre dette argumentets mulige implikasjoner for utdanningspolitikk, pedagogikk og forskning.

Abstract

«Digital literacy» is increasingly being identified as a formal educational goal. While mainstream definitions vary in detail, the scope and meaning of digital literacy are rarely seen as problematic. This paper argues that typical mainstream accounts of digital literacy are seriously flawed. Rather than conceiving digital literacy as some unitary phenomenon it is better to think in terms of diverse digital literacies. The paper concludes by identifying some implications of this argument for educational policy, pedagogy and research.

Keywords: digital literacy, literacies, sociocultural, social practice, blogs, fanfic
Open access
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 21-35)
av David Buckingham
This article offers a rationale for the notion of «digital literacy» in education. Pointing to some of the limitations of previous proposals in this field, it outlines a framework based ...
Engelsk sammendrag
This article offers a rationale for the notion of «digital literacy» in education. Pointing to some of the limitations of previous proposals in this field, it outlines a framework based on four key concepts drawn from media education. It applies these concepts to the World Wide Web and to computer games, and discusses the role of digital media production by students in developing digital literacy. The article emphasises the importance of developing critical approaches to digital media as a necessary prerequisite for using them as resources for learning. 

Keywords: Media literacy, digital literacy, media education
Open access
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 35-52)
av Barbara Gentikow
Not only new media demand new skills and contribute to cultural and social changes. The main purpose of this article is to present two theoretical approaches which look at how ...
Sammendrag
Not only new media demand new skills and contribute to cultural and social changes. The main purpose of this article is to present two theoretical approaches which look at how both traditional and new media (print, electronic and digital media) can function in terms of contributing to the development of (new) literacies and (new) cultural techniques. It is an ambitious project, trying to combine two relatively different theoretical approaches, each of considerable complexity. 

Nøkkelord: Media, literacy, technology, cultural techniques
Open access
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 53-71)
av Berit Bratholm
The subject of this article is our experience of working with digital portfolios in primary and lower secondary school. An important theoretical reference for this work has been Engle & ...
Engelsk sammendrag
The subject of this article is our experience of working with digital portfolios in primary and lower secondary school. An important theoretical reference for this work has been Engle & Conant’s article about how productive academic engagement can be fostered by suitable learning conditions. The project is based on -ethnographic methods. I present different factors which are important for successful interplay between teacher and pupils when working with digital portfolios.

Keywords: Digital portfolio, productive academic engagement
Open access
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 72-84)
av Neil Selwyn
This short position paper reconsiders the exaggerated expectations that currently surround the social web and education within many sections of the education technology community. In particular four popular assumptions of ...
Engelsk sammendrag
This short position paper reconsiders the exaggerated expectations that currently surround the social web and education within many sections of the education technology community. In particular four popular assumptions of the social web are challenged, namely: (i) expectations of enhanced participatory learning; (ii) expectations of enhanced equality of opportunity; (iii) expectations of learner affinity and interest; and (iv) expectations of freedom from proprietary constraints. The paper contends that many of these expectations stem from a tendency for education technology researchers and writers to over-value seemingly ‘new’ informal uses of the social web, whilst downplaying unequal power relations between individual learners and formal processes of education. The paper concludes that educationalists and technologists alike should strive to look beyond the rhetoric of the social web, and develop realistic and critical understandings of the ‘messy’ realities of social web technologies and education.

Keywords: social web, web 2.0, software, education
Open access
(side 85-102)
av Ola Erstad
The concept of a digital generation has been dominating the public discourse on the role of digital media in young people’s lives. Issues concerning a digital generation is closely ...
Engelsk sammendrag
The concept of a digital generation has been dominating the public discourse on the role of digital media in young people’s lives. Issues concerning a digital generation is closely linked to questions about how we develop an education system that is able to face the challenges of the 21st Century. A growing field of research, inclined to raise awareness of present and future challenges for our education system, is ‘media/digital literacy’. This article examines research within ‘generation studies’ and public constructions of young people and digital media. Further the article presents some developments within ‘new literacy studies’ and different aspects of ‘competencies for the 21st Century’. Next, the article reflects different approaches to studying these competencies, based on different empirical data, both from my own research and that of colleagues. Towards the end the important question of inclusion and exclusion is raised. The objective is to explore some issues of importance for future development of media literacy, the educational use of digital tools and critical considerations of a digital generation. A key part of the article is the elaboration of five dimensions representing different focus areas of research on school-based studies of media literacy.

Keywords: Media/digital literacy, generation, school, inclusion, exclusion.
Open access
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 103-121)
av Anders D. Olofsson, J. Ola Lindberg, Göran Fransson og Trond Eiliv Hauge
This article is a review of international research on the uptake and use of digital technologies in primary and secondary schools. The aim was to provide a credible and clear ...
Engelsk sammendrag
This article is a review of international research on the uptake and use of digital technologies in primary and secondary schools. The aim was to provide a credible and clear picture of current research, together with some well-informed suggestions as to how future research could develop. Two strategies were used: (1) identify themes within current research that indicate important lessons to be learned in relation to the uptake and use of digital technologies in primary and secondary schools, and (2) based on these lessons, identify which knowledge-gaps need to be closed and in the light of this suggest directions for further research. It is concluded that a rather complex and fragmented picture of the uptake and use of digital technologies emerges from the literature review. Three specific suggestions for research on the uptake and use of digital technologies in primary and secondary school are provided: (1) the outcomes of technology use in relation to different levels in the educational system, e.g. arenas of implementation and realization, (2) digital practices that are longitudinal and information-rich and that go beyond existing knowledge, and (3) initiatives for a renewal of theoretical and methodological approaches when designing and analyzing studies within the field.

Keywords: Digital technology, literature review, primary school, secondary school, uptake and use, policy, school leadership, teacher professional development.
Open access
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 122-137)
av Marte Blikstad-Balas
The present study uses video recordings and qualitative interviews to examine the digital literacy practices of Norwegian students who have a personal laptop for school use. It uses the dichotomy ...
Engelsk sammendrag
The present study uses video recordings and qualitative interviews to examine the digital literacy practices of Norwegian students who have a personal laptop for school use. It uses the dichotomy between dominant school texts and vernacular out-of-school texts to examine the new school literacy practices. Findings indicate that the teachers’ use of visual technologies such as Power Point presentations in whole-class settings generates a variety of individual digital literacy practices among the students.

Keywords: Digital literacy, student literacy practices, Internet in school.
Open access
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 138-154)
av Cathrine Edelhard Tømte
In this study we explored how teacher education institutions handle the use of ICT in teacher education. A qualitative approach conducted as a multiple case study design involved three teacher ...
Engelsk sammendrag
In this study we explored how teacher education institutions handle the use of ICT in teacher education. A qualitative approach conducted as a multiple case study design involved three teacher education institutions. Two case studies where conducted in 2009 and one in 2012. Findings revealed that teachers appear to have become more aware of the use of ICT in education in 2011 compared to 2009. Still, teacher students remain to be sufficiently well prepared on how to use ICT for pedagogical purposes, even if their technical skills are improved over the years.

Keywords: Teacher training, ICT, digital competence, curricula
Open access
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 155-171)
av Elen Instefjord
The aim of the article is to explore opportunities for appropriation of digital competence in teacher education. Digital competence is knowledge, skills and attitudes required in order to use technology ...
Engelsk sammendrag
The aim of the article is to explore opportunities for appropriation of digital competence in teacher education. Digital competence is knowledge, skills and attitudes required in order to use technology critically and reflectively in the process of building new knowledge. According to Wertsch learning to use a cultural artefact is characterized by two processes: mastery and appropriation. The article reports from a case study of two teacher education institutions. Findings indicate that the same challenges are found in both institutions: the conflict between mastery and appropriation, and between personal and educational use of technology, and the resistance towards technology among some teacher educators. The results signify that in order to create opportunities for appropriation of digital competence and encourage use of technology as part of pre-service teachers’ professional didactic competence, technology should be better integrated as pedagogical tools for teaching and learning in all subjects in the teacher education programmes.

Keywords: Teacher education, technology, digital competence, appropriation
Open access
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 172-186)
av Bård Ketil Engen, Tonje Hilde Giæver og Louise Mifsud
Teacher education has recently been criticised for not fulfilling its obligation to adequately prepare teachers to utilise digital tools in the classroom. In this paper, we raise the question of ...
Engelsk sammendrag
Teacher education has recently been criticised for not fulfilling its obligation to adequately prepare teachers to utilise digital tools in the classroom. In this paper, we raise the question of why Norwegian teacher education does not prepare student teachers to integrate digital tools into their teaching as required by the Norwegian curriculum. We question the formal premises governing the development of digital competence in teacher education and how they correspond with the requirements of the Norwegian national education curriculum. To gain insight into this question, we analysed how digital competence is presented in the official key documents that create the framework for teacher education, and compared them to the requirements of the Norwegian National Curriculum. Our findings indicate that there is a weak link between the curriculum and the premises for digital competence in teacher education.

Keywords: Digital competence, teacher education reform, national curriculum
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