Definitions of digital literacy in public discourse still focus mainly on technique, whereas educational studies want to break free from such functional concepts. To accomplish this, an approach is suggested that is not media-centred, but user-centred, which looks at the interaction that takes place on the internet. On the basis of Erving Goffmans frame theory, an example of such an approach is given.
The subjects were 389 nine to sixteen-year-old pupils who participated in the Norwegian web-based National Assessment in English Reading as a foreign language. The pupils achievement in English, their self-reported Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) competence, and general ability were assessed. Using regression analyses, self-reported ICT competence, but not general ability scores, had a significant relation to English reading scores in the 4th grade but not in the 10th grade. In contrast, general ability, but not self-reported ICT competence, was significantly related to English reading for the 10th graders. The results at both grade levels were replicated in separate gender-wise analyses. The findings indicate that the computerized National Test in English reading in lower school grades is a test of computer competence or computer familiarity, more so than achievement in English. Thus, there are serious issues of validity involved when using computerized tests in primary schools.
Since 2003, the biennial national ITU Monitor survey has been carried out by the Network for IT Research and Competence in Education to gather information about the use of information and computer technology (ICT) in Norwegian schools, including students, teachers and school leaders. In the ITU Monitor 2009, the students were given an assessment to measure their digital literacy in addition to questions about when and how often they use ICT in school.
The aim of this paper is to identify and understand how digital literacy among 9th grade students is related to time spent on computers at school and outside school, family background and priorities from the schools. The findings from the study reveal a large variation in digital literacy and this can indicate a digital literacy divide among the 9th grade students. Further, the results show how digital literacy is related to both school factors (e.g. access to computers and schools with an ICT-supportive climate) and home factors (e.g. family background and grades). Overall, the findings indicate how systematic factors at the individual and school levels have an impact on digital literacy.
The purpose of this article is threefold. First, it reviews the literature on mentoring as a modern form of individually enhanced competency development. Second, it describes what characterizes mentor conversations conducted in the form of web-based video communication and establishes the concept of Web-based video mentoring (WVM). Third, based on a case study, the article highlights and discusses pedagogical challenges and possibilities that emerge using WVM. Moreover the article discusses the relationship between trust and technical competency, and argues for the importance of picture and sound in the mentor relationship and in the designing of the conversations. Finally the case study illustrates how form, process and leadership are decisive factors and that continuity through accessibility is of importance for a successful Web-based video mentoring.