Does the novel technology blockchain conceal properties of an organization that we do not see? This paper suggests that this may be the case. The paper sets out to substantiate a claim that we might be observing the emergence of a loose organization in blockchain. A loose organization can provisionally be defined as a community of blockchain actors who frequently interact with each other and use the spaces between IT silos belonging to centralized organizations and distributed decentralized computer networks to coordinate and innovate the use of data through acts of organizing. In these spaces, blockchain actors engage in activities and practices and coordinate and innovate the use of data in ways that may constitute the groundwork for institution-building processes of blockchain fields. The rationale for posing the concept of loose organizations relates to the fact that blockchain introduces new technological features, algorithmic consensus mechanisms and cryptography, which materializes as a coordination mechanism allowing people and organizations to move digital assets without using intermediates. These innovations turn the Internet into an instrument for transferring values between parties without going through a trusted third party. A new trust protocol, based on blockchain’s record-keeping technology, allows digital assets such as accreditation, intellectual property, and digital identity to be safely and securely transacted through peer-to-peer networks. For such digital assets to be transferred properly, they seem to depend on the organizing acts of actors belonging to loose organizations in blockchain fields. To hypothesize the emergence of loose organizations in blockchain, we apply institutional entrepreneurship from new institutional theory. Empirically, the paper turns its focus on Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), a sector that has little experience with blockchain and struggles with the adoption of digital technologies. In HEIs, blockchain has interesting applications and can be used to make academic credentials transferable and accessible to students, employers, and universities. The paper outlines opportunities and challenges residing in the adoption of blockchain in HEIs.
We developed and examined an in-store, location-based mobile advertising effects model in which cognitive and affective brand experiences were proposed to mediate the influence of mobile advertising on awareness of the advertised product, attitude toward the advertising brand, and loyalty to the advertising brand. We tested the model on real customers (n=574) in a natural field study. Respondents used their own smartphones, and advertisements and survey instruments were implemented into a commercial native app used by ordinary customers. The results showed no direct influences of in-store, location-based mobile advertising on awareness, attitude, and loyalty. However, indirect influences were revealed through both affective brand experience (awareness, attitude, loyalty) and cognitive brand experience (awareness). Further, the results indicate that advertising appeal and product involvement influence the role of affective and cognitive brand experiences. This implies that in-store, location-based mobile advertising effects are best understood through a process model that includes brand experiences.
Landsomfattende statlige etater i Norge har tradisjonelt vært organisert etter geografi, med til dels sterke regionale enheter. I denne artikkelen går vi inn på tre etater (Arkivverket, Skatteetaten, Statens vegvesen) som har erstattet regionale enheter med organisering etter funksjoner eller formål. To drivkrefter ligger bak denne utviklingen: nye muligheter gjennom digital teknologi, og en erkjennelse av at man utfører likeartede oppgaver på tvers av regioner. For Arkivverket og Skatteetaten var stedsuavhengighet (i produksjon og brukerkontakt) som følge av digitalisering særlig viktige drivkrefter. Artikkelen bidrar med ny kunnskap om hvordan digital teknologi påvirker prinsipper for gruppering, og om samspillet mellom organisasjonsstruktur og lokalisering av arbeid. Dette åpner for en rekke interessante problemstillinger for videre forskning.
Nationwide state agencies in Norway have traditionally been organized in regional units. Here, we analyze three agencies (the National Archives of Norway, the Tax Administration, and the Norwegian Public Roads Administration) in which regional units have been replaced with grouping according to functions or output. The driving forces are a) new possibilities created by digital technology, and b) the recognition that each agency performs similar activities across regions. For the National Archives and the Tax Administration, digitalization enabled the independence of specific localizations (for production and client contact). The article contributes with new knowledge on how digital technology impacts grouping of activities, and on the association between organization structure and localization of work.
We employ the event study methodology and simple descriptive measures to examine the performance of the Norwegian stock market before and in the first three months after the implementation of the lockdown policy in March 2020. Most of the financial losses occurred before the lockdown decision was made. In general, price volatility has been higher since the lockdown compared to the prior period. The information technology sector has performed best in the post-lockdown period, whereas the energy and finance sectors have performed worst. However, the finance sector has had a significant recovery in the post-event period. Among the marketplaces, Oslo Axess performed best in the month following the lockdown and has also experienced less volatility than Oslo Børs. A noticeable finding is that companies with headquarters in Norway have rebounded far better than those with headquarters abroad in the post-lockdown period.
2–2020, volume 34
Beta – Scandinavian Journal of Business Research is an electronic journal that publishes two issues annually. This is the first issue for the new editorial team. One of our key aims is to advance BETA’s current high quality and therefore to further enhance its significance as a publication channel for PhD thesis papers. We also invite supervisors of good Master theses to encourage and help students to submit their research to BETA.
BETA is already an established outlet for research in business and economics, such as: strategic management, organizational behaviour, marketing, business economics, public sector management, accounting and finance, human resource management, sustainable business model development, innovation and product development, and business ethics.
In particular, BETA welcomes submissions set in Scandinavian contexts, but is also open to studies set in other contexts.
It was first issued in 1986 and from 2006 the journal is published e-only.
The journal publishes refereed articles and is classified as a journal at level 1 on the Norwegian Association of Higher Education Institutions' list of publishing channels.
Ingeborg Astrid Kleppe
Professor, NHH – Norwegian School of Economics,
Sylvia Gottschalk, Director of Finance Programmes, Middlesex University Business School
Richard Croucher, Professor at Middlesex University
Erik Døving, Associate professor, OsloMet
The journal is published by Scandinavian University Press / Universitetsforlaget
Layout: Type-it AS, Trondheim
Type-setting: Tekstflyt AS
Front cover: Olivia Jørgensen
ISSN online: 1504-3134
© Scandinavian University Press / Universitetsforlaget 2020