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Female groups are not like others?
Effects of gender composition on intergroup cooperation
Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 7-21)
av Vidar Schei og Jørn K. Rognes
Sammendrag

Does gender composition affect a group’s willingness to cooperate with another group? We studied this question by examining 188 three- and four-person groups of master-level business students (N = 682) playing a multiple-round intergroup prisoner’s dilemma game. The proportion of male group members was positively related to the rate of initial cooperation. However, the proportion of female group members was positively related to an increase in cooperation when, later in the game, group representatives were given the chance to communicate face to face. No gender effects related to cooperation were found among the participants as a consequence of an unexpected prolongation of the game. In particular, all-female groups seemed to differ from all the other gender compositions; initially, they were very competitive, but they also became very cooperative after face-to-face communication between group representatives.

Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 22-42)
av Beate Jelstad Løvaas, Stephen Sirris og Asbjørn Kaasa
SammendragEngelsk sammendrag

Dagens kunnskapsmedarbeidere ligner dagens frivillige i sin søken etter meningsfullt arbeid. Med utgangspunkt i at en sentral dimensjon ved ledelse av frivillige handler om å tilrettelegge for frivilliges motivasjon, gjennomgår vi nyere forskning om betingelser for frivillig innsats (slik som Wollebæk, Sætrang & Fladmoe, 2015). Vi undersøker hvorvidt de identifiserte motivasjonsdimensjonene samsvarer med eller har noe å tilføre ledelse av kunnskapsarbeidere, belyst gjennom teorien om transformasjonsledelse (Bass, 1985; Bass & Riggio, 2006). Verdier i form av «interesse for saken» fremstår som en sentralt for frivillige. Mens transformasjonsledelse fokuserer på lederen som kommuniserer verdier og visjoner, så kan lederen av frivillige derimot betraktes som en forvalter av felles verdier og som en tilrettelegger for motivasjon og engasjement for saken. En ytterligere oppmerksomhet på å holde det meningsbærende levende, eksempelvis ved å koble den enkeltes innsats til organisasjonens formål, synes å være en relevant perspektivforsterker for ledere i kunnskapsorganisasjoner.

Knowledge workers are becoming more like volunteers in their search for meaningful work. With a starting point in the fact that a central dimension of volunteer management is about facilitating the volunteers’ motivation, we review recent research on voluntary engagement (Wollebæk, Sætrang, & Fladmoe, 2015). We analyze whether the identified elements are included in the leadership literature, exemplified by the theory of transformational leadership (Bass, 1985; Bass & Riggio, 2006). Values emerge as a central motivating factor for volunteers. While transformational leadership focuses on the leader communicating values and visions, leading volunteers seems to emphasize facilitating the existing engagement among the volunteers, and hence, managing the common good. A further focus on meaningful work, for example by communicating the purpose of the organization and linking it to the individual’s efforts, seems to be relevant for managers in knowledge-based organizations.

Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 43-60)
av Geir Bjønnes Høidal, Dagfinn Rime og Haakon Olav Solheim
Sammendrag

We examine the volume-volatility relation in the foreign exchange (FX) market using a unique data set from the Swedish krona (SEK) market that contains observations of 90–95 percent of all transactions from 1995 until 2002. We show that the strength of the volume-volatility relation depends on the group of market participants trading. Financial trading volume has the highest correlation with volatility. Interbank trading between the largest Market-making banks is also positively correlated with volatility, while trading among Other market-making banks show no correlation with volatility. Trading by Non-Financial customers is not correlated with volatility at all when controlling for trading by other market participants. Interestingly, we show that (unexpected) spot volume and changes in net positions (spot and forward) by Financial customers Granger cause spot volume and changes in net positions by Non-Financial customers. Our results clearly show that market participants in the FX market are heterogeneous, suggesting that differences in trading strategies and information may explain the volume-volatility relation.

Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 61-83)
av Bruno Gerard
Sammendrag

We review the literature on ESG and Socially Responsible Investment with a special focus on fixed-income investments. Most of the academic research is focused on the link between corporate CSR and ESG activities, investors’ SR engagement and stock returns and firm value. Very few studies examine the link between firm ESG policies and bond prices, risks and returns, and the performance of SR FI funds. The studies linking CSR to firm value suggest that higher CSR leads to higher corporate value, higher equity returns, and lower risk, enhancing the general collateral value of the firm. The FI income studies provide mixed evidence about the link between issuer ESG scores and bond prices and return characteristics: the bonds of issuers with both excellent and very poor ESG behavior tend to underperform the bonds of issuers with neither very strong nor very poor ESG scores. Lastly, while issuers’ ESG excellence may have led to both their equity and debt outperforming those of poorer ESG issuers in the 1990s, this out-performance halved in the first part of the 2000s and completely disappeared after the financial crisis. Markets seem now to largely price ESG performance into equity and bond prices.

JEL classification: G11, G28, G34, M14

Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 84-112)
av Halvdan Haugsbakken
Sammendrag

Media scholars have examined the effects of social media on society at large. The complex ways the same technology is adopted and implemented into organizational life is rather unclear. This aspect relates to a lack of research interest for new digital technologies among organizational researchers and creates a significant research knowledge gap. Therefore, this article provides a comprehensive literature research study on how Enterprise Social Media Platforms are used in organizations, covering research published from 2007 to 2016. Based on a relatively large data sample, the paper identifies seven large research streams on how organizational researchers have studied Enterprise Social Media Platforms. It also suggests areas for future research.

Vitenskapelig publikasjon
(side 113-130)
av Åge Garnes og Tarjei Alvær Heggernes
SammendragEngelsk sammendrag

Industri 4.0 har blitt lansert som betegnelse på den neste teknologiske revolusjonen. Den aktuelle utviklingen innebærer at algoritmer bygges inn i det meste av våre materielle omgivelser. Alt blir digitalisert og kan styres via Internett, telefonsignaler eller ulike typer radiobølger. Robotisert produksjon, smarte produkter, smarte fabrikker, smarte byer og smarte statsapparat kan symbolisere hva vi har i vente. Men Industri 4.0 utvikles ikke i et vakuum. Industri 4.0 drives fram de neste desenniene parallelt med et unikt historisk bakteppe preget av befolkningseksplosjon, skjevfordeling i alderspyramider, økende ulikheter mellom mennesker og voksende klimatrusler. Industri 4.0 innebærer at produksjon vil foregå med betraktelig færre ansatte. Scenarioet basert på denne utviklingen kan bety arbeidsløshet i stor stil, deretter etterspørselsfall og påfølgende økonomiske nedgangstider. Mens noen ser Industri 4.0 som en forsterker av krise- og undergangsutvikling, ser andre for seg at dette blir redningsplanken som vil frambringe nye produkter, nye arbeidsmåter og nye forretningsmodeller og nytt håp. Hvilket scenario som realiseres, er resultat av overnasjonale, nasjonalpolitiske, kollektivt organiserte og bedriftsstrategiske valg, uansett vår tids mest skjellsettende utfordringer.

Industry 4.0 has been launched as a term for the next technological revolution. The current development means that algorithms are built into most of our material environments. Everything is digitized and can be controlled via the Internet, phone signals or different types of radio waves. Robotized production, smart products, smart plants, smart cities and smart state-of-the-art equipment may symbolize what to expect. But Industry 4.0 is not developed in a vacuum. Industry 4.0 is running the next decades in parallel with a unique historical backdrop characterized by population explosion, skew distribution in age pyramids, increasing inequalities between humans, as well as growing climate threats. Industry 4.0 means that production will take place with considerably fewer employees. The scenario based on this development may mean high unemployment, followed by decreasing demand and subsequent economic downturns. While some see Industry 4.0 as the enhancement of crisis, others see it as the bailout that will bring about new products, new ways of working, new business models, and new hopes. The scenario that will eventually be realized is the result of supranational and national policy, collectively organized, and corporate strategic choices—without doubt—today’s most decisive challenges.

1–2019, volume 33

www.idunn.no/beta

Beta – Scandinavian Journal of Business Research is an electronic journal that provides an excellent outlet for research and scholarship on management and business related themes and topics, including: General Management, Human Resource Management, Organizational Behavior, Leadership- and Organization Development, Accounting and Finance, Business Ethics, Strategic Management, Marketing, Business Economics and Public Sector Management.

The editors give priority to original articles that contain results with theoretical and practical relevance as well as reviews, research notes and summaries of research reports. The journal also carries reviews of topical literature in the field.

It was first issued in 1986 and from 2006 the journal is published e-only.

The journal publishes refereed articles and is classified as a journal at level 1 on the Norwegian Association of Higher Education Institutions' list of publishing channels.

Editor

Bjarne Espedal, Professor at NHH Norwegian School of Economics

Associate Editors

Anders Dysvik, Professor at BI Norwegian Business School

Erik Døving, Associate Professor at Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences

Bjørn-Tore Flåten, Associate Professor at School og Business and Law, University of Agder

Paul Gooderham, Professor at NHH Norwegian School of Economics

Leif Hem, Professor at NHH Norwegian School of Economics

Svein Tvedt Johansen, Associate Professor at UiT The Arctic University of Norway

Henrik Holt Larsen, Professor at CBS (Copenhagen Business School)

Editorial advisory board

Richard Croucher, Professor at Middlesex University

Glenn Kristiansen, Associate Professor at NMBU Norwegian University of Life Sciences

EDITORIAL ASSISTANT

Aud Aasen

 

The journal is published by Scandinavian University Press / Universitetsforlaget

 

Layout: Type-it AS, Trondheim

Type-setting: Tekstflyt AS

Front cover: Olivia Jørgensen

 

ISSN online: 1504-3134

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18261/issn.1504-3134

© Scandinavian University Press / Universitetsforlaget 2019

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