How Open is Open Innovation?
Networks are important in channeling flows of knowledge between firms, which in turn generate innovation and economic growth. However, research on how managers and their attitudes may affect the development of these networks has so far mainly examined local interaction, while their role in promoting international collaboration is less well understood. This paper examines managerial values and norms and the patterns of local and non-local interaction in the five largest Norwegian city regions. It shows that managerial values and attitudes have a significant impact on the company’s level of cooperation. However, they work in fundamentally different ways for local compared to international interaction. Regional trust has a positive effect on collaboration with regional and national partners, but does not spill over to foster international cooperation. Conversely, open-mindedness does not matter for regional and national cooperation, but has a positive effect on the degree of international cooperation.Keywords: open innovation, networks, trust, open-mindedness