Networks are important in channeling flows of knowledge between firms, which in turn generate innovation and economic growth. However, research on how managers and their attitudes may affect the development of these networks has so far mainly examined local interaction, while their role in promoting international collaboration is less well understood. This paper examines managerial values and norms and the patterns of local and non-local interaction in the five largest Norwegian city regions. It shows that managerial values and attitudes have a significant impact on the company’s level of cooperation. However, they work in fundamentally different ways for local compared to international interaction. Regional trust has a positive effect on collaboration with regional and national partners, but does not spill over to foster international cooperation. Conversely, open-mindedness does not matter for regional and national cooperation, but has a positive effect on the degree of international cooperation.
In this paper we study possible determinants of the use of incentive pay for managers in European companies. Data from 5,000 firms in 15 countries are used to analyze the degree to which incentive pay is associated with national embeddedness, local labour market institutions, ownership, and internationalization of markets. We find that companies in countries with high scores on power distance and individualism tend to use incentive schemes for managers more frequently than companies with lower scores on these cultural dimensions. Centralized wage bargaining and unionization at the firm level tend to reduce the prevalence of such schemes. Incentive pay is less common in state-owned companies than in privately owned firms. The findings also reveal that the more global the market in which a firm operates, the greater the probability that it will implement incentive pay elements for its managers. Our results suggest that unions, national labour market institutions and social and cultural norms serve as buffers against the introduction of US-style compensation systems.
Taking as its starting point the significance of social networks for knowledge sharing in multinational enterprises (MNEs), this paper has a particular focus on the role global leadership development programs may have on both social networks and knowledge sharing in MNEs. The concept of social networks is developed using social capital theory. Our data is derived from Norfert, a Scandinavian MNE, which in 2007 introduced its first such program, «LEAD». In order to examine the impact of LEAD we deploy a mixed-methods approach. Contrary to our theoretically driven assumption the longitudinal quantitative data suggest that participation in LEAD had a no positive effect on knowledge sharing. We therefore employed qualitative data in order to explain this finding, which we did in terms of the particular cultural and organizational context in which LEAD was created.
I artikkelen beskrives elementene i en ny generasjon nettverksbasert kompetansemegling. Spørsmålene som stilles, er følgende: Hvordan har kompetansemegling utviklet seg til nå? Hvordan foregår nettverksbasert kompetansemegling, og hvilke erfaringer har man gjort? Hva er styrker og svakheter ved individuell kompetansemegling kontra nettverksbasert kompetansemegling? Artikkelens fem casestudier viser at nettverksbasert kompetansemegling ser ut til å ha en større relasjonsbyggende, tillitsskapende, nettverksbyggende og kunnskapsutviklende effekt enn individuell kompetansemegling. I tillegg ser det nettverksbaserte virkemiddelet ut til å være mer effektivt når det gjelder ressursbruk, slik at mer av ressursene kan brukes til økonomisk støtte til bedriftsprosjekter eller til flere meglingsprosesser.
Knowledge cannot necessarily be easily transferred from a lecturer to students. It needs to be constructed by the learners themselves. If a learner is active and allowed to directly apply abstract knowledge to concrete cases in a lecture, the learning process will improve. In aiming to improve learning outcomes for plenary lectures, we present new topics through examples from a Bachelor’s degree course in finance. An example involves a problem and the procedure for solving it. The lecturer and the students develop the examples simultaneously, on individual PCs. While the teacher demonstrates the examples on a spreadsheet on a large screen, the students model the examples in separate spreadsheets on their own PCs. The lecturer introduces new concepts and principles as and when the example requires. We can encode the general principles behind the problem solution once the example is complete. An evaluation reveals that students perceive using spreadsheets to work on examples in plenary finance lectures as instructive.