Peri-implantitis. A significant clinical problem?

The occurrence of peri-implantitis has been assessed in several studies. Huge variations in the prevalence of peri-implantitis have been reported, mainly due to variations in the patients included in the studies as well as in the definition of peri-implantitis. Peri-implantitis seems to be a significant clinical problem due to the increasing use of implants, especially in patients with various known risk factors. In addition, treatment of peri-implantitis is still complex and unpredictable, especially when advanced peri-implantitis lesions have developed. Moreover, the peri-implantitis lesion may be so advanced that implant removal is the only treatment modality available. Due to the advanced peri-implantitis-induced alveolar bone loss, complex bone regenerative procedures are frequently required before new implants can be inserted. Therefore, early diagnosis and adequate treatment of peri-implantitis are extremely important to minimize the risk of advanced disease development. Moreover, focus on known risk factors is also important, including meticulous infection control before implant treatment in patients with tooth loss due to periodontitis, optimal implant treatment, optimal oral hygiene, and a systematic maintenance care program.